Mobility Circle and Return Migration a case study of Bulgarian Students Maria Velizarova icon

Mobility Circle and Return Migration a case study of Bulgarian Students Maria Velizarova




НазваMobility Circle and Return Migration a case study of Bulgarian Students Maria Velizarova
Дата09.11.2012
Розмір445 b.
ТипДокументи


Mobility Circle and Return Migration A case study of Bulgarian Students

  • Maria Velizarova


Content

  • Theoretical overview

    • Mobility circle
    • Theoretical perspectives in the return migration studies
    • Emigration in Bulgaria – data and its absence
  • Case study

    • Sample overview
    • Motivation in the different mobility stages
    • Sustainability of the return
  • Conclusions





Theoretical perspectives in the return migration studies

  • “The movement of a person returning to his/her country of origin or habitual residence usually after spending at least one year in another country. This return may or may not be voluntary. Return migration includes voluntary repatriation.” (IML Glossary on Migration; IOM; 2004)

  • Neoclassical economics (NE)

    • The return is seen as a failure
  • The new economics of labor migration (NELM)

    • A calculated strategy
  • Structuralism

    • Return is a question of context
  • Trans-nationalism

    • Mobility is no impediment anymore
  • Social network theory

    • Securing the return




Emigration in Bulgaria – data and the its absence

  • Before 1989 there was a restrictive emigration policy in Bulgaria

    • The net migration flow from 1992 to 2001 is “–177 000” people
    • The most of them were young and in working age, with at least completed secondary school
    • The primary reason of the emigration was an economic one
  • Lack of information and difficulties to find the returnees after they are back home

    • No tradition in the data collection and no systematized data
    • No register or no statistical data on national level


Case study



Sample overview

  • Snowball sample

  • 70 online respondents and 8 in-depth interviews

  • Age: 80% are between 20-30

  • 85,9% were studying before the departure

  • 80% have an University degree and 20% a high school degree

  • 70% are in Bulgaria not longer than 2 years

  • The 5 most represented countries are Germany, Austria, USA, Italy and England.



Situation at home before the departure

  • The corruption and the criminality ( 72%) before the departure were the biggest problems for the respondents

  • None of the respondents with just high school was satisfied with the economic situation in Bulgaria before their departure.



Decision for mobility – Push Factors

  • The big importance of the education as push factor explains the lower rates on economic and family push factors.

  • The respondents without a foreign university degree were less unsatisfied with the education in Bulgaria. For them the economic problems were more important than for the respondents with a foreign university degree.



Decision for mobility – Pull Factors

  • The better economic situation in the foreign country was stronger motivation for the respondents without a foreign university degree than the one with.

  • For the respondents with a foreign university degree was the family and network abroad not so important, that for the respondents without such.

  • The economic pull factors were mostly important for the returnees from Austria (72%), USA (71%) and Germany (37,5%)

  • 83% of the returnees from Germany were totally motivated to study abroad. By the returnees from Austria 36% were totally and 27% were mostly motivated to study abroad. For the USA returnees this proportion was 57% to 20%.

  • It can be expected that another motivation, like good job or good payment, is playing more important role than the education motive in those two countries.



Prearrangements for mobility actions

  • 89% were financially supported from their families.

  • Just 52% from the respondents found a place to live before their departure. This result rise the question: Where were staying the rest 48% at their first days abroad, and if the networks abroad was not underestimate as a factor for the choice of emigration country.



Situation abroad and migration experience

  • 60% stayed abroad between 1 and 5 years, which is considered as a critical stage in one's emigration life

  • 64% were coming to Bulgaria during their stay abroad 2 or more times an year and 31% once a year.



Situation abroad and migration experience

  • The respondents with foreign degree have less economic problems abroad than the rest.

  • The respondents with residence problems were mostly foreign graduates.

  • The younger respondents and the one without foreign degree felt the absence of social network stronger than the rest.



Decision for going back home

  • The remoteness is not playing a significant role for the decision of returning to Bulgaria.

  • Family and network are more important for the respondents with just a high school degree.



Situation back home

  • 24% are not good economic reintegrated – 68,8% are women

  • The data confirmed the positive relation between economic reintegration and the length of stay in Bulgaria.

    • The longer the returnees are in Bulgaria, the better is their economic reintegration.


Sustainability

  • 50% of the returnees shown a high potential for further mobility

  • All of the respondents from the in-depth interviews said they didn’t want to stay in Bulgaria and they are using the good situation in the country to earn experience, to make a career and to reach a good position in a few years. To do so abroad as they said will take much longer.

  • They were making plans to reach their goals and good positions in a few years and to go abroad but on a higher position and with better standard of living than before.



Return-migration typology

  • Using the theoretical perspectives given from Cassarinio, there could be recognized the four main types of returnees.

  • According to the description of the returnees in this sample, they are mostly corresponding to the “Return of innovation”, where both the relations to the home and to the foreign countries are strong.



Conclusions

  • Education and economic reasons for migration

  • No strong push factors to return back to Bulgaria

  • Strong attachment to the network in Bulgaria

  • Good economic reintegration

  • Big potential for further mobility



Thank you for the attention!

  • Maria Velizarova

  • mariavelizarova@yahoo.com



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