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CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT BY ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RISKS IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Sumy State University, Ukraine
In the process of socio-economic development in magnitude becomes revealing of the contradictions between economic system and state of the environment. These contradictions include the potential ecological danger, and that causes the necessity and importance of taking into account the probability of its occurrence, determination of economic losses from its realization and implementation of preventive measures to achieve the optimal level of ecological and economic risks. This will become the basis of realization of sustainable development concept.
At this time there is not sustainability in terms of ecological and economic definition of risk, so it deserves special attention specificity of approaches to determining the ecological and economic risks, their classification and incorporation of the widest possible number of factors during determining the content of risk.
Based on analysis, synthesis of existing approaches to determining the ecological and economic risks and systematization of the factors of risk we have deepened their content, revealed their essence, types and proposed of the ecological and economic risks management concept.
Ecological, social and economic risk is the potential danger of environmental degradation, social and economic systems as well in their relationship, that courses further environmental degradation of the environment, increase morbidity and mortality rates, when significant material losses, such potential danger takes place in the course of nature in all its revealing and consequences.
Signs of risk classification, in our opinion, are the following: the level of risk revealing, the sphere of the risk consequences revealing, the subjects of perception of risk factors, the potential of existence and implementation.
To manage by environmental and economic risks effectively it is necessary to expand the number of identified risk factors. With increasing numbers of discounted factors increases the depth of the term risk.
We have identified aspects of the risks revealing, such as ecological, economic, social, technical, technological, organizational, legal, political and spiritual. On the basis of identified aspects of revealing of ecological and economic risks as appropriate, in our view, distinguish the occurrence of risk factors and measures to neutralize them.
Based on the above mentioned concepts, factors, types of ecological and economic risks, we have defined conceptual basis of ecological and economic risks management to achieve their optimal level, consisting of the following statements.
Analysis of the activities should be conducted in terms of potential and real ecological and economic risks. It is necessary to systematize the factors of risk for the magnitude of their revealing, the level of controllability, their forms, sources of origin. This is a potential risk of economic and social losses as a result of ecological dangers.
It is necessary to consider factors related to major factors of realization and proliferation the impact of risk occurrence. It is a real risk. On the basis of factor analysis there is necessity to develop indicators of real and potential risks. It is necessary to develop the method of their calculation, the order of their introduction to accounting and reporting systems at local, regional and national levels. An important task faces the information providing for their determination, and their normative values. In our opinion, there is a need to develop a classificatory standard of risk factors in terms of ecological, economic and social aspects of its subsequent update in accordance with the pace of scientific and technical progress. Thus it is possible to represent an essence foundations of ecological, social and economic risk factor in its structure.
At first it is necessary to analyze the components of risk, identify and quantify the factors of their occurrence and relations between them, and identify quality forms of the risks revealing.
The next position is the identification and specification of objects at risk. Then, quantitative assessment of the degree of negative impact is realized in terms of individual subjects of perception of the risk consequences. Based on the synthesis of negative effects on all subjects of perception is developed integral index of negative impact.
The next step is for a balanced risk optimization, which is to develop a set of measures reduce the potential risks and negative effects of its implementation. After this important task is the implementation of the complex organizational arrangements. The final component of risk management is the monitoring, analysis, forecasting and modeling the probability of occurrence of environmental hazards. This process of risk management is a recurring character.
Fundamental principles of ecological and economic risks management are:
1) risk analysis in terms of the unity of their ecological, economic and social components;
2) evaluation of the impact of risks on the population, economic system and the environment on levels of detail aspects of the risks revealing;
3) consideration of possible qualitative forms of the risks revealing;
4) scientific and methodological bases of assessment of integrated and individual levels of risk;
5) development of measures of optimization of ecological and economic risks level in the direction of balanced environmental, economic and social development.
Considering the above conceptual foundations and principles of ecological, social and economic risks management will ensure its optimum level in terms of ecological state, social tension and economic development.
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