How thick is the plasma membrane? icon

How thick is the plasma membrane?




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Cytology. Cell membrane. Cytoplasma. Gyaloplasma.


How thick is the plasma membrane?
a. 8-10 angstroms
b. 8-10 nanometers
c. 8-10 micrometers
d. 8-10 millimeters
e. None of the above


What is the term for the general process that cells us to expunge material from the cell?
a. Endocytosis
b. Exocytosis
c. Pinocytosis
d. Phagocytosis
e. Active transport


What is the limiting membrane of a cell?
a. Plasmalemma
b. Glycocalyx
c. Protoplasm
d. Cristae
e. Ground substance


What is also called a low resistance junction?
a. Tight junction
b. Gap junction
c. Junctional epithelium
d. Junctional complex
e. None of the above


What is the term for the general process that cells us to bring things into the cell?
a. Endocytosis
b. Exocytosis
c. Pinocytosis
d. Phagocytosis
e. Active transport


^ What is the term for the process used by cells for the transport in of particulate matter?
a. Endocytosis
b. Exocytosis
c. Pinocytosis
d. Phagocytosis
e. Active transport


What is the polysaccharide coating that is sometimes found on the cell membrane?
a. Plasmalemma
b. Glycocalyx
c. Protoplasm
d. Cristae
e. Ground substance


^ What process is nicknamed "cell drinking"?
a. Endocytosis
b. Exocytosis
c. Pinocytosis
d. Phagocytosis
e. Active transport


Cytology. Organells. Inclusions.


Which of the following is NOT a membranous organelles?
a. Lysosomes
b. Peroxisomes
c. Mitochondria
d. Ribosomes
e. Endoplasmic reticulum


^ Which organelle contains digestive enzymes?
a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. Lysosome
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Mitochondria


Which organelle is considered the powerhouse of the cell?
a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. Lysosome
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Mitochondria


^ What structure is at the base of cilia?
a. Ribosomes
b. Peroxisome
c. Microfilaments
d. Centrioles
e. Nucleoli


Which of the following is NOT considered an inclusion?
a. Pigment
b. Glycogen
c. Lipid
d. Secretory granules
e. Mitochondria


^ Collectively, what is the cytoplasm and nucleus called?
a. Plasmalemma
b. Glycocalyx
c. Protoplasm
d. Cristae
e. Ground substance


Which organelle sorts and packages proteins within a cell?
a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. Lysosome
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Mitochondria


^ Which of the following is NOT a membranous organelle?
a. Lysosomes
b. Filaments
c. Peroxisomes
d. Mitochondria
e. Endoplasmic reticulum


What are the folds on the inner mitochodrial membrane called?
a. Plasmalemma
b. Glycocalyx
c. Protoplasm
d. Cristae
e. Ground substance


^ Which organelle is involved in lipid metabolism?
a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. Lysosome
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Mitochondria


Which organelle contains detoxifying enzymes?
a. Ribosomes
b. Peroxisome
c. Microfilaments
d. Centrioles
e. Nucleoli


^ Which of the following is NOT a membranous organelle?
a. Microtubules
b. Lysosomes
c. Peroxisomes
d. Mitochondria
e. Endoplasmic reticulum


Which of the following is an organelle?
a. Pigment
b. Glycogen
c. Lipid
d. Secretory granules
e. Mitochondria


^ Which organelle produces protein for export?
a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. Lysosome
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Mitochondria


Where are ribosomes constructed?
a. Cytoskeleton
b. Peroxisome
c. Microfilaments
d. Centrioles
e. Nucleoli


^ What is another term for the cytoplasm outside of organelles?
a. Plasmalemma
b. Glycocalyx
c. Protoplasm
d. Cristae
e. Ground substance


What is the a small clear space within a cell?
a. Space of Disse
b. Space of Mall
c. Vacuole
d. Lacuna
e. Howship's lacuna


^ Which of the following is NOT a membranous organelle?
a. Lysosomes
b. Peroxisomes
c. Centrioles
d. Mitochondria
e. Endoplasmic reticulum


Which organelle is studded with ribosomes?
a. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. Lysosome
d. Golgi apparatus
e. Mitochondria


^ Where is the site of protein synthesis?
a. Ribosomes
b. Peroxisome
c. Microfilaments
d. Centrioles
e. Nucleoli


What structure contributes to the cells cytoskeleton?
a. Ribosomes
b. Peroxisome
c. Microfilaments
d. Centrioles
e. Nucleoli


Cytology. Nucleus. The cell cycle.


You can see a cell where there are no karyons and no membrane. The chromosomes are located loosely and the centrioles are migrating to the poles. What is the phase of the cell’s cycle?

a. Prophase

b. Anaphase

c. Metaphase

d. Telophase

e. Interphase


A tumor cells culture has been affected by colchicine which blockades the proteins- tubulines creation in the form of separator modioli. Which phases of the cell cycle are supposed to be broken?

  1. Mitosis

  2. Presynthetic period

  3. Synthetic period

  4. Postsynthetic period

  5. G-zero period


For gender indication it is sometimes necessary to investigate somatic cells. Which of their structures help to indicate person’s gender?

  1. Barr’s body

  2. Euchromatin

  3. Decondensed chromatin

  4. Geterochromatin

  5. Optional chromatin


On histological preparation you can see a human somatic cell in the metaphase of the mitotic separation. How many chromosomes are included into a metaphase membrane, provided that every chromosome has two similar ones?

  1. 46 chromosomes

  2. 92 chromosomes

  3. 23 chromosomes

  4. 48 chromosomes

  5. 24 chromosomes


Embryology

In the experiment with the frog embryo the ectoblast has been ruined. Which morphological structure is supposed to stop developing?

  1. Epidermis

  2. Somites

  3. Nephrotome

  4. Splanchnotome

  5. Bone tissue


In the microscope investigation of the embryo membranes you can see a chorion. What is the main function of this organ?

    1. Substance exchange between mother’s organism and fetus

    2. Bloodformation

    3. Amniotic fluid production

    4. The formation of primary sexual cells

    5. The formation of lymphocytes


A 2-3 weeks old embryo has honoblasts which are the presage of sex cells. In what material can these cells be differentiated?

  1. In yolk (vitelline) sac

  2. In mesenchyme

  3. In embryonic ectoderm

  4. In dermatomes

  5. In embryonic entoderm


The process of zygote separation finishes in blastula formation. What blastula type is characteristic for a human?

  1. Blastocyst

  2. Celoblastula

  3. Discoblastula

  4. Amfiblastula

  5. Morula


In the experiment the bird embryo has the sclerothoma broken. What structure is supposed to be affected in its development?

  1. Axial skeleton

  2. Skin connecting tissue

  3. Stroma of intestines

  4. Stroma of gonads

  5. Chorda (cord)


As a result of the expression of certain genome components the cells acquire their morphological, biochemical, functional characteristics. What’s this process called?

  1. Differentiating

  2. Capacitating

  3. Reception

  4. Determination

  5. Adhesion


In the process of acquiring morphological, biochemical, functional characteristics by the cells, they are limited in development opportunities. What’s the limitation acquired called?

  1. Commitment

  2. Reception

  3. Capacitating

  4. Determination

  5. Adhesion


The embryo material investigated in the somite has a disbalance zone which is located close to endoderm and chorda. What parts of the embryo are affected in their development in case of the pregnancy continuing?


  1. Skeleton tissues

  2. Urinogenital system

  3. Skeleton striped muscle tissue

  4. Fibrous skin connecting tissue


In the embryo material the disbalance of endoterma differentiation has been detected. What changes in the organs development can be expected in this process?

  1. Stomach

  2. Heart

  3. Kidneys

  4. Aorta

  5. Salivary glands


Male sexual cells are moving to the ovosyte in the direction opposite to the liquid (distant phase of impregnation). What is this directed movement called?

  1. Reotaxis

  2. Termotaxis

  3. Hemotaxis

  4. Capacitating

  5. Acrosomal reaction


You can see an ovocyte in the moment of its impregnation by a male sexual cell. What is the main result of impregnation?

    1. Zygote formation

    2. Child’s gender determination

    3. Ovocyte’s completion of meosis

    4. Penetration of oolemma (pellucid zone) by spermatozoon

    5. Cortical reaction


In the gystological preparation you can see a non-parturient organ which presents a saccule connected with the guts tube. Its inside wall is covered with the epithelium, and the outside wall is formed by the tela conjunctiva. During the embryogenesis early period this organ functions as a hematopoiesis one. Name it.

  1. Yolk sac

  2. Alantois

  3. Amnion

  4. Umbilical cord

  5. Placenta


The implantation process has two phases – adhesion and invasion. The morphological expression of adhesion process of the balosist is

  1. Attachment of blastocyst to endometrium

  2. Ruination of epithelium of endometrium

  3. Ruination of connecting tissue of endometrium

  4. Ruination of endometric vessels

  5. Formation of lacunas


In the process of the embryogenesis an organ which has an endocrine function is formed from a trophoblast. Name the right answer.

    1. Villous chorion (fetus part of placenta )

    2. Amnion

    3. Yolk sac

    4. Alantois

    5. Umbilical cord


It’s known that some microorganisms able to cause infectious diseases can penetrate the placenta barrier. Which structures below form it?

  1. All structural components of tertiary villi

  2. Chorion and amnion

  3. All structural components of secondary villi

  4. Alantois, yolk sac

  5. Basal lamina of endometrium with decidual cells


In the period of gastrulation the embryo has a Genzen nolude not developed enough. What axial organ is reduced in its development?

  1. Chorda

  2. Neural cristae

  3. Neural depression

  4. Neural tube

  5. Mantle layer of neural tube


In histological preparation you can see a hen embryo in the stage of mesoderma differentiation into somites, segment limbs and splanchnotome. What material is the apix skeleton formed of?

  1. Sclerotome

  2. Dermatome

  3. Nephrotome

  4. Splanchnotome

  5. Myotome


Non-embryonic organ, in the early period of embryogenesis, covered with one-layer pavement epithelium which acquires prisma and cube shape and participates, participates in embryo liquor amni producing. Name it.

  1. Amnion

  2. Yolk sac

  3. Alantois

  4. Umbilical cord

  5. Placenta


In the period of gastrulation an embryo passes from hystiathrophic to hematothrophic nutrition. Which provisor organ first provides it?

  1. Chorion

  2. Trophoblast

  3. Yolk sac

  4. Amnion

  5. Alantois


The embryo implantation into the uterus mucous membrane consists of two phases – adhesion and invasion. The fist one is accompanied with…

  1. Attachment of blastocyst to endometrium’ surface

  2. Ruination of connecting tissue of endometrium

  3. Ruination of epiteliocytes of mucous membrane (endometrium) of uterus

  4. Activation of uterine glands’ secretion

  5. Depression of uterine glands’ secretion


In the embryogenesis process an organ is formed by the throphoblast which has an endocrine function. Give the right answer.

  1. Villous chorion (fetus part of placenta)

  2. Amnion

  3. Yolk sac

  4. Alantois

  5. Umbilical cord


There has been genetically reduced the synthesis of litic hormones of trophoblastic cells in a blastocyte covered with blastoderm. What process of the embryo development can be reduced or cancelled?

  1. Implantation

  2. Delaminating

  3. Immigration

  4. Gastrulating

  5. Epiboly


In the process of the human embryo development one can observe the appearance of a cavity, small light blastomeres in the periphery and big dark blastomeres in one of the poles. What ois the embryo called on this stage of its development?

  1. Blastocyst

  2. Morula

  3. Zygote (zigocyte)

  4. Gastrula

  5. Blastodisk


While investigating a dead embryo one can observe the changes in cardiomiocytes. What development defects resulted these changes?

  1. Myoepicardial plate

  2. Myotome

  3. Entoderm

  4. Ektoderm

  5. Mesenchyme


A human embryo not fixed in the endometrium has been found in the uterus cavity. What is the stage of development this phenomenon characteristic to?

  1. Blastocyst

  2. Zygote (zigocyte)

  3. Morula

  4. Gastrula

  5. Neurulla


The implantation process consists of two phases – adhesion and invasion. The first phase is accompanied by…

  1. Attachment of blastocyst to endometrium’ surface

  2. Ruination of connecting tissue of endometrium

  3. Ruination of epiteliocytes of mucous membrane (endometrium) of uterus

  4. Activation of uterine glands’ secretion

  5. Depression of uterine glands’ secretion


There has been found a human embryo formed by two blastomeres. Name the place of its location on condition of the normal development.

  1. Uterine tube

  2. Uterine cavity

  3. Womb cavity

  4. Mucous membrane of uterus

  5. Ovary


The process of zygote splitting finishes in blastula forming. What type of blastula is characteristic for a human?

  1. Blastocyst

  2. Celoblastula

  3. Discoblastula

  4. Amfiblastula

  5. Morula


In the process of human embryo forming one can observe a cavity, small light blastomeres in the periphery and big dark blastomeres on the poles. What is the embryo called in this period?

  1. Blastocyst

  2. Morula

  3. Zygote (zigocyte)

  4. Gastrula

  5. Discoblastula


One of the crucial periods of the human embryogenesis is the embryo implantation into the uterus perimetrium during the seventh week. Which gastrulation process is going on in this period?

  1. Delaminating

  2. Migration

  3. Epiboly

  4. Invagination

  5. Neurolation


During the microscope investigation of female inner reproduction organs after their extirpation a two blastomeres embryo. What’s the place of its location on condition of the normal development?

  1. Uterine tube, near ampulla part

  2. Uterine tube, near uterine part

  3. Uterine cavity

  4. Womb cavity

  5. Ovary


The early human embryo gastrulation happens by the embryoblast delamination. What structure is the beginning of the nervous system located in?

  1. In epiblast

  2. In trophoblast

  3. In hypoblast

  4. In side part of hypoblast

  5. In the centre of hypoblast


The human blastocyst implantation starts. Name the period of the embryogenesis which starts simultaneously?

  1. Gastrulating

  2. Invagination

  3. Differentiation

  4. Histogenesis

  5. Splitting up


In the human embryo micropreparation taken from the natural abortion one can see an embryo scutulum. What is the period of the embryo development?

  1. Gastrulating

  2. Blastulating

  3. Progenesis

  4. Organogenesis (organogeny)


In the period of gastrulation an embryo passes from hystiathrophic to hematothrophic nutrition. What provisor organ provides it first?

  1. Chorion

  2. Trophoblast

  3. Yolk sac

  4. Amnion

  5. Alantois



An antigene of the tissue compatibility is inherites by the child form the parents. What provisoring organ first prevents the rejection by the mother organism?

  1. Chorion

  2. Amnion

  3. Alantois

  4. Yolk sac

  5. Umbilical cord


In the human embryo micropreparation, taken from the natural abortion one can see an embryo scutulum. What is the period of the embryo development?

  1. Gastrulating

  2. Progenesis

  3. Neurulation

  4. Histogenesis


While examinationg athe woman who was killed in an accident there was found an embryo on the stage of the early gastrulation. Point out its location on condition of the normal development.

  1. Uterine wall

  2. Ampulla part of oviduct

  3. Uterine part of oviduct

  4. Ovary

  5. Womb cavity


In the period of early human gastrulation the ectoderm and the endoterm are forming. What is the mechanism of their gorming?

  1. Delaminating

  2. Invagination

  3. Epiboly

  4. Immigration

  5. Invagination, epiboly


In the first crucial period in the uretus tube there happened the dissolving of the embryo. What pregnancy problems can be detected in this case?

  1. Implantation of an embryo in a tube wall

  2. Death of an embryo

  3. Invagination of blastocyst wall

  4. Return of blastocyst back to tube’s ampulla zone

  5. Formation of two blastocysts


Producing a seria of hormones, the placenta plays the role of a terminal endocrine gland. What hormone can be pointed in the blood of a woman during the 3-4th day from the making a pregnancy diagnosis?

  1. Chorionic gonadotropin (choriogonadotropin)

  2. Somatostatin

  3. Progesterone

  4. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, beta-hypophamine)

  5. Oxytocin (ocytocin, α-hypophamine)


In the result of the investigation of amniotic liquor taken during the amniocenthesis there have been founded the cells having sex chromosomes in their nucleus (Barr corpuscle). What does it mean?

  1. Development of a feminine fetus

  2. Development of a masculine fetus

  3. Genetic abnormality in development of fetus

  4. Trisomy

  5. Polyploidy


A new-born child has been diagnosed the blue asphycsia. What vessel bringing oxygen to the embryo from the mother’s blood was damaged during the delivery?

  1. Umbilical vein (vena umbilicalis)

  2. Umbilical artery (arteria umbilicalis)

  3. Chorionical vein

  4. Chorionical artery

  5. Uterine artery (arteria uterina)

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