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How thick is the plasma membrane?




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According to the statistics, 10-14% of new-born children have the defects of urinary system. What are the sources of the urinary system development?

  1. Non-segmental caudal mesoderm

  2. Dorsal mesoderm

  3. Visceral part of ventral mesoderm

  4. Parietal part of ventral mesoderm

  5. Embryonic mesenchyme


In the early human embryo development period there occurs a finger-like ecphyma of the initial gut ventral wall which grows into an amniotic pedicle. What is the name of this provisor

  1. An allantois

  2. A yolk (vitelline) sac

  3. An amnion

  4. A placenta

  5. An umbilical cord


In the histologic preparation you can see a transverse cut of an organ, the basis of which is formed by the mucous tela conjuctiva, two arteties and one vein. What organ is it?

  1. An umbilical cord

  2. An allantois

  3. A yolk (vitelline) sac

  4. An amnion

  5. A placenta


In the histologic human embryo preparation one can see a phlycten connected with a gut tube which is one of the provisor organs. An initial sex cells and initial erytrocytes (megaloblasts). What organ is this?

  1. A yolk (vitelline) sac

  2. An allantois

  3. A placenta

  4. An umbilical cord

  5. An amnion


The early human embryo gastrulation happens by the embryoblast delamination. In what structure is the beginning of the nervous system located?

  1. In epiblast

  2. In trofoblast

  3. In hypoblast

  4. In side part of hypoblast

  5. In the centre of hypoblast


In a child’s finger skin preparation we can observe the signs of unsufficient development. What embryo layer has been damaged?

  1. Ektoderm

  2. Mesoderm

  3. Entoderm

  4. Mesenchyme

  5. Ektomesenchyme


In the histologic human embryo preparation one can see a phlycten connected with a gut tube which is one of the provisor organs. An initial sex cells and initial erytrocytes (megaloblasts). What organ is this?

  1. A yolk (vitelline) sac

  2. An allantois

  3. A placenta

  4. An umbilical cord

  5. An amnion


The embryo umbilical cord constriction has happened but the blood circulation between the mother and the child hasn’t been changed. What structures have first provided it?

  1. Mucous (mucilaginous) connective tissue

  2. Remaining part of allantois

  3. Arteries’ membrane

  4. Veins’ membrane

  5. Remaining part of yolk rope


The woman had influenza (grip) and it was found that it happened in the period of the early gastrulation. What results of it can be expected?

  1. Disorder in formation of ekto- and endoderm

  2. Disorder in formation of mesoderm

  3. Disorder in formation of mesenchyme

  4. Disorder in the process of epibolia

  5. Disorder in the process of invagination


There has been genetically reduced the synthesis of litic hormones of trophoblastic cells in a blastocyst covered with blastoderm. What process of the embryo development can be reduced or cancelled?

  1. Implantation (nidation, implantation, nidatio)

  2. Delamination

  3. Immigration

  4. Gastrulation

  5. Epibolia


In the human embryo micropreparation, taken from the natural abortion one can see an embryo scutulum. What is the period of the embryo development?

    1. Gastrulation

    2. Progenesis

    3. Neurulation

    4. Histogenesis (gistogeny)

    5. Organogenesis (organogeny)


Producing a seria of hormones, the placenta plays the role of a terminal endocrine gland. What hormone can be pointed in the blood of a woman during the 3-4th day from the making a pregnancy diagnosis?

    1. Chorionic gonadotropin (choriogonadotropin)

    2. Somatostatin

    3. Progesterone

    4. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, beta-hypophamine)

    5. Oxytocin (ocytocin, α-hypophamine)


In the result of the investigation of amniotic liquor taken during the amniocenthesis there have been founded the cells having sex chromosomes in their nucleus (Barr corpuscle). What does it mean?

  1. Development of a feminine fetus

  2. Development of a masculine fetus

  3. Genetic abnormality in development of fetus

  4. Trisomy


Tissues. Epithelium tissue.


What type of tissue lines the bladder?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium


^ What type of tissue lines most ducts?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium


What type of epithelium is associated with goblet cells?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Pseudostratified epithelium


^ What type of epithelial cells are as tall as they are wide?
a. Simple
b. Stratified
c. Squamous
d. Cuboidal
e. Columnar


What do you call the simple squamous epithelium that lines the blood vessels?
a. Epithelioid tissue
b. Mesothelium
c. Endothelium
d. Transitional
e. Pseudostratified


^ What cell type makes up the mucosa of the gallbladder?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium


Which of the following is lined by a serosa?
a. Genitourinary tract
b. Peritoneal cavity
c. Respiratory tract
d. Alimentary canal
e. All of the above are lined by a mucosa


^ What type of gland secretes its product through a duct or tube?
a. Endocrine gland
b. Multicellular gland
c. Exocrine gland
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


What is a gland called if the secretory portion is flask shaped?
a. Simple gland
b. Compound gland
c. Tubular
d. Alveolar
e. Tubuloalveolar


^ What forms the brush border?
a. Microvilli
b. Stereocilia
c. Cilia
d. Keratinization
e. Both a and b


What type of epithelium lines the trachea?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Pseudostratified epithelium


^ What type of tissue lines blood vessels?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium


What type of epithelium is more than one layer thick?
a. Simple
b. Stratified
c. Squamous
d. Cuboidal
e. Columnar


What do you call a tissue composed of a conglomeration of cells which are tightly packed together, yet which does not have a free surface? An example of such a tissue would be the parenchyma of the adrenal gland.
a. Epithelioid tissue
b. Mesothelium
c. Endothelium
d. Transitional
e. Pseudostratified


^ What type of epithelium appears stratified, but is not?
a. Epithelioid tissue
b. Mesothelium
c. Endothelium
d. Transitional
e. Pseudostratified


Which of the following is lined by a mucosa?
a. Peritoneal cavity
b. Pericardial cavity
c. Pleural cavity
d. Alimentary canal
e. All of the above are lined by a mucosa


^ What type of gland secretes its product directly into the bloodstream?
a. Endocrine gland
b. Multicellular gland
c. Exocrine gland
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


What is a gland called if it has an unbranched duct?
a. Simple gland
b. Compound gland
c. Tubular
d. Alveolar
e. Tubuloalveolar


^ What is a gland called if the secretory portion is tube shaped ending in a flask shaped
area at the terminus?
a. Simple gland
b. Compound gland
c. Tubular
d. Alveolar
e. Tubuloalveolar


What is the surface modification seen on the cells of the epididymis?
a. Microvilli
b. Stereocilia
c. Cilia
d. Keratinization
e. Both a and b


^ What type of epithelium forms the epidermis?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Pseudostratified epithelium


What type of tissue lines most of the gastrointestinal tract?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium


^ What type of tissue forms the alveoli in the lung?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Pseudostratified epithelium


What type of epithelium is composed of flat cells?
a. Simple
b. Stratified
c. Squamous
d. Cuboidal
e. Columnar


^ What do you call the simple squamous epithelium that lines the abdominal cavity?
a. Epithelioid tissue
b. Mesothelium
c. Endothelium
d. Transitional
e. Pseudostratified


What type of epithelium is composed of cells which all touch the basement membrane
and is only one cell layer thick?
a. Stratified squamous epithelium
b. Transitional epithelium
c. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
d. Pseudostratified epithelium
e. None of the above


^ Which of the following is NOT lined by a mucosa?
a. Genitourinary tract
b. Pericardial cavity
c. Respiratory tract
d. Alimentary canal
e. All of the above are lined by a mucosa


What is a gland called if it has an branched duct?
a. Simple gland
b. Compound gland
c. Tubular
d. Alveolar
e. Tubuloalveolar


^ What are finger like projections on the surface of some cells called?
a. Microvilli
b. Stereocilia
c. Cilia
d. Keratinization
e. Both a and b


What cell surface modification is made of microtubules?
a. Microvilli
b. Stereocilia
c. Cilia
d. Keratinization
e. Both a and b


^ What type of tissue composes the kidney tubules?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium


What type of tissue lines the esophagus?
a. Simple squamous epithelium
b. Simple cuboidal epithelium
c. Simple columnar epithelium
d. Stratified squamous epithelium
e. Transitional epithelium


^ What type of epithelium is one cell layer thick?
a. Simple
b. Stratified
c. Squamous
d. Cuboidal
e. Columnar


What type of epithelial cells are taller than they are wide?
a. Simple
b. Stratified
c. Squamous
d. Cuboidal
e. Columnar


^ What type of epithelium has dome shaped cells on the apical surface?
a. Epithelioid tissue
b. Mesothelium
c. Endothelium
d. Transitional
e. Pseudostratified


Which of the following is NOT lined by a serosa?
a. Peritoneal cavity
b. Pericardial cavity
c. Pleural cavity
d. Respiratory tract
e. All of the above are lined by a serosa


^ Which of the following is a unicellular gland?
a. Squamous cell
b. Goblet cell
c. Basal cell
d. Basket cell
e. Sertoli cell


What forms the striated border?
a. Microvilli
b. Stereocilia
c. Cilia
d. Keratinization
e. Both a and b


^ What is a characteristic of the cells in the epidermis of the skin?
a. Microvilli
b. Stereocilia
c. Cilia
d. Keratinization
e. Both a and b


What is another term for an acinar gland?
a. Simple gland
b. Compound gland
c. Tubular
d. Alveolar
e. Tubuloalveolar

Blood. Haemopoiesis.


^ Which of the four basic tissue types does blood belong to?
a. Epithelium
b. Connective tissue
c. Muscle
d. Nervous tissue
e. Blood


Which of the following formed elements do not contain a nucleus?
a. Platelets
b. Erythrocytes
c. Leukocytes
d. Monocytes
e. Both a and b


^ What comes from a megakaryocyte?
a. Lymphocytes
b. Basophils
c. Erythrocytes
d. Monocytes
e. Platelets


Which leukocyte is the most abundant in a peripheral smear of blood?
a. Lymphocytes
b. Basophils
c. Neutrophil
d. Monocytes
e. Eosinophils


^ Which of the following is not a granulocyte?
a. Lymphocytes
b. Neutrophil
c. PMN
d. Eosinophils
e. Basophils


Which of the following is a granulocyte?
a. Thrombocyte
b. Lymphocyte
c. Eosinophil
d. Monocyte
e. Erythrocyte


^ Which of the following is NOT a term used for a neutrophil?
a. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils
b. Poly's
c. PMN
d. NP
e. Polymorph


Which leukocyte has a multi-lobed (3-5 lobes) nucleus?
a. Neutrophil
b. Lymphocytes
c. Monocytes
d. Eosinophil
e. Basophils


^ Which cell has large blue granules, often obscuring the nucleus?
a. Neutrophil
b. Lymphocytes
c. Monocytes
d. Eosinophil
e. Basophils


Which of the following is not considered a "formed element"?
a. Plasma
b. Erythrocytes
c. Platelets
d. Leukocytes
e. Red blood cells


^ Which leukocyte is the second most abundant in a peripheral smear of blood?
a. Lymphocytes
b. Basophils
c. Neutrophil
d. Monocytes
e. Eosinophils


Which of the following is a granulocyte?
a. Lymphocyte
b. Neutrophil
c. Monocyte
d. Erythrocyte
e. Thrombocyte


^ Which leukocyte has orange-pink granules?
a. Neutrophil
b. Lymphocytes
c. Monocytes
d. Eosinophil
e. Basophils


What is another term for a red blood cell?
a. Thrombocyte
b. Monocyte
c. Lymphocyte
d. Basophil
e. Erythrocyte


^ Which of the following is described as a "biconcave disc"?
a. Platelets
b. Erythrocytes
c. Leukocytes
d. Monocytes
e. Eosinophils


Which is the largest leukocyte?
a. Neutrophil
b. Lymphocytes
c. Monocytes
d. Eosinophil
e. Basophils


Connective tissue.


^ Which of the following is NOT primarily composed of connective tissue?
a. Blood
b. Bone
c. Tendon
d. Intervertebral disc
e. Myometrium


Which of the following is NOT a fiber found in connective tissue?
a. Collagen fiber
b. Elastic fiber
c. Reticular fiber
d. Purkinje fiber
e. All of the above are fibers found in connective tissue


^ Which connective tissue cell type contains properties of smooth muscle cells?
a. Fibroblast
b. Myofibroblast
c. Histiocyte
d. Plasma cell
e. Mast cell


Which cell is a connective tissue macrophage?
a. Kupffer cells
b. Histiocyte
c. Dust cell
d. Langerhans cell
e. Microglia


^ Which of the following can be classified as "specialized connective tissue"?
a. Mesenchyme
b. Mucous connective tissue
c. Dense connective tissue
d. Blood
e. Loose connective tissue


Which of the following can be classified as "embryonic connective tissue"?
a. Cartilage
b. Mucous connective tissue
d. Adipose tissue
d. Bone
e. Blood


^ What type of tissue makes up the dermis of the skin?
a. Mucous connective tissue
b. Mesenchyme
c. Loose irregular connective tissue
d. Dense irregular connective tissue
e. Dense regular connective tissue


What type of adipose tissue tends to increase as humans age?
a. Brown adipose tissue
b. White adipose tissue
c. Unilocular adipose tissue
d. Multilocular adipose tissue
e. Both b and c


^ What color does connective tissue stain with Gomori's trichrome?
a. Orange
b. Blue
c. Pink
d. Red
e. Green


Which of the following would be best suited to differentiate collagen fibers from other fibers?
a. Wright's stain
b. Hematoxylin and eosin stain
c. Sudan stain
d. Silver impregnation
e. Masson's trichrome stain


^ 11. Which of the following is NOT primarily composed of connective tissue?
a. Bone marrow
b. Articular cartilage
c. Heart
d. Mesenchyme
e. Fat


Which one of these cells is not a cell type routinely found in loose connective tissue?
a. Fibroblast
b. Microglia
c. Histiocyte
d. Plasma cell
e. Mast cell


^ Which connective tissue cell is a tissue macrophage?
a. Fibroblast
b. Myofibroblast
c. Histiocyte
d. Plasma cell
e. Mast cell


Which of the following can be classified as "specialized connective tissue"?
a. Cartilage
b. Loose connective tissue
c. Mesenchyme
d. Dense connective tissue
e. Mucous connective tissue


^ Which of the following can be classified as "connective tissue proper"?
a. Adipose tissue
b. Dense irregular connective tissue
c. Bone
d. Blood
e. Cartilage


What type of tissue is Wharton's jelly?
a. Mucous connective tissue
b. Mesenchyme
c. Loose irregular connective tissue
d. Dense irregular connective tissue
e. Dense regular connective tissue


^ What type of tissue is a tendon composed of?
a. Mucous connective tissue
b. Mesenchyme
c. Loose irregular connective tissue
d. Dense irregular connective tissue
e. Dense regular connective tissue


What does connective tissue develop from?
a. Mesothelium
b. Mesenchyme
c. Mesangial cells
d. Mesentery
e. Wharton's jelly


^ What color do elastic fibers stain with Verhoeff Elastic stain?
a. Red/Orange
b. Pink/red
c. Purple/Red
d. Blue/black
e. Green/blue


Which of the following is a component of the ground substance?
a. Hyaluronic acid
b. Proteoglycans
c. Glycosaminoglycans
d. Chondroitin sulfate
e. All of the above


^ Which of the following is NOT primarily composed of connective tissue?
a. Spinal cord
b. Pubic symphysis
c. Ligament
d. Areolar tissue
e. Organ capsule


Which connective tissue cell type produces the ground substance in connective tissue?
a. Fibroblast
b. Myofibroblast
c. Histiocyte
d. Plasma cell
e. Mast cell


^ Which connective tissue cell is derived from B lymphocytes?
a. Fibroblast
b. Myofibroblast
c. Histiocyte
d. Plasma cell
e. Mast cell


Which of the following can be classified as "specialized connective tissue"?
a. Mesenchyme
b. Bone
c. Dense connective tissue
d. Mucous connective tissue
e. Loose connective tissue


^ Which of the following can be classified as "connective tissue proper"?
a. Bone
b. Blood
c. Adipose tissue
d. Loose irregular connective tissue
e. Cartilage


What type of connective tissue is an undifferentiated tissue found in the embryo?
a. Mucous connective tissue
b. Mesenchyme
c. Loose irregular connective tissue
d. Dense irregular connective tissue
e. Dense regular connective tissue


^ What type of tissue is a ligament composed of?
a. Mucous connective tissue
b. Mesenchyme
c. Loose irregular connective tissue
d. Dense irregular connective tissue
e. Dense regular connective tissue


Which of the following is not associated with connective tissue?
a. Tightly packed cells
b. Extracellular fibers
c. Tissue fluid
d. Ground substance
e. None of the above; all of the above are seen with connective tissue


^ Which of the following would be best suited to visualize lipid?
a. Wright's stain
b. Hematoxylin and eosin stain
c. Sudan stain
d. Silver impregnation
e. Masson's trichrome stain


A beauty treatment for the reduction of wrinkles is the injection of hyaluronic acid into the wrinkle. What is hyaluronic acid?
a. Dermatan sulfate
b. Proteoglycan
c. Glycosaminoglycan
d. Chondroitin sulfate
e. Keratan sulfate


^ Which is the most abundant fiber in connective tissue?
a. Collagen fiber
b. Elastic fiber
c. Reticular fiber
d. Purkinje fiber
e. Muscle fibers


Which connective tissue cell type produces collagen?
a. Fibroblast
b. Connective tissue macrophage
c. Histiocyte
d. Plasma cell
e. Mast cell


^ Which connective tissue cell type secretes histamine?
a. Fibroblast
b. Myofibroblast
c. Histiocyte
d. Plasma cell
e. Mast cell


Which of the following can be classified as "specialized connective tissue"?
a. Loose connective tissue
b. Mesenchyme
c. Adipose tissue
d. Mucous connective tissue
e. Dense connective tissue


^ Which of the following can be classified as "embryonic connective tissue"?
a. Adipose tissue
b. Bone
c. Blood
d. Cartilage
e. Mesenchyme


What is areolar tissue?
a. Mucous connective tissue
b. Mesenchyme
c. Loose irregular connective tissue
d. Dense irregular connective tissue
e. Dense regular connective tissue


^ What type of adipose tissue tends to decrease as humans age?
a. Brown adipose tissue
b. White adipose tissue
c. Unilocular adipose tissue
d. Multilocular adipose tissue
e. Both a and d


What color are collagen fibers with Masson's trichrome stain?
a. Red
b. Pink
c. Green
d. Black
e. Yellow


^ Which of the following would be best suited to visualize reticular fibers?
a. Wright's stain
b. Hematoxylin and eosin stain
c. Sudan stain
d. Silver impregnation
e. Masson's trichrome stain


Skeletal tissue. Cartilage.


What type of basic tissue type is cartilage?
a. Muscle
b. Nervous
c. Cartilage
d. Epithelium
e. Connective tissue


^ How many types of cartilage are there?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. 5


What do you call the space where a chondrocyte sits in?
a. Space of Disse
b. Space of Mall
c. Vacuole
d. Lacuna
e. Howship's Lacuna


What stain would be best to demonstrate the elastic fibers in elastic cartilage?
a. Wright's stain
b. Hematoxylin and eosin stain
c. Sudan stain
d. Silver impregnation
e. Resorcin fuchsin and orcein


^ Which type of cartilage is found in the walls of the eustachian tube?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


Which type of cartilage forms the skeleton of the fetus?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ What type of tissue makes up the "Adam's apple"?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Fibrocartilage
c. Elastic cartilage
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c


Which type of cartilage forms the intervertebral disc?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ Which type of cartilage forms the hammer, anvil and stirrup?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


Which type of cartilage is characterized by the presence of elastic fibers?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ Which type of cartilage is highly vascular?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


What cell produces the cartilaginous matrix?
a. Chondrocyte
b. Chondroblast
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoclast
e. Bone lining cell


^ Which type of cartilage is found in the larynx?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Both a and b
e. All of the above


Which of the following is NOT a glycosaminoglycan in cartilage?
a. Chondroitin sulfate
b. Proteoglycans
c. Keratan sulfate
d. Hyaluronic acid
e. All of the above are glycosaminoglycans in cartilage


^ Which type of cartilage is characterized by a glassy matrix?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


Which type of cartilage is characterized by the presence of chondrocytes sitting in lacunae?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ Which type of cartilage is the most abundant?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage equally
e. Elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage equally


Which type of cartilage forms the articular surface on bones?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ Which type of cartilage is found in the external ear?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


Costal cartilage is composed of what type of cartilage?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ Which type of cartilage forms the symphysis pubis?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


What structure is called white cartilage?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Compact bone
e. Spongy bone


^ What is the connective tissue covering which surrounds cartilage?
a. Perimysium
b. Periosteum
c. Perichondrium
d. Perineurium
e. Endosteum


Where does cartilage come from?
a. Ectoderm
b. Endoderm
c. Mesenchyme
d. Connective tissue
e. None of the above


^ What is the mature cell in cartilage called?
a. Chondrocyte
b. Chondroblast
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoclast
e. Bone lining cell


Regarding the blood supply to cartilage:
a. Cartilage has minimal circulation
b. Cartilage has a duel circulation
c. Cartilage is highly vascular
d. Cartilage is avascular
e. There is nothing unique about the blood supply to cartilage


^ Which type of cartilage is characterized by the presence of thick bundles of collagen fibers?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


What percent of the matrix of cartilage is water?
a. 0
b. 10-40
c. 40-60
d. 60-80
e. 80-100


^ Which type of cartilage forms the epiphyseal growth plate?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


What type of tissue makes up the rings of the trachea?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Fibrocartilage
c. Elastic cartilage
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c


^ What type of tissue makes up the epiglottis?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Fibrocartilage
c. Elastic cartilage
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c


Which type of cartilage is present in the temporomandibular joint?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ What structure is called yellow cartilage?
a. Hyaline cartilage
b. Elastic cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Compact bone
e. Spongy bone


Bone. Osteo-chondrogenesis

What is compact bone?
a. Dense bone
b. Woven bone
c. Immature bone
d. Cancellous bone
e. Spongy bone


^ What cell is involved in bone resorption?
a. Osteoclast
b. Osteon
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoblast
e. Osteoid


What type of basic tissue type is bone?
a. Epithelium
b. Connective tissue
c. Muscle
d. Nervous
e. Bone


^ What is woven bone?
a. Cancellous bone
b. Compact bone
c. Dense bone
d. Immature bone
e. Spongy bone


What are the spicules on spongy bone called?
a. Canaliculi
b. Sharpey's fibers
c. Trabeculae
d. Tome's process
e. Lacuna


^ Which cell type is responsible for bone breakdown?
a. Chondrocyte
b. Chondroblast
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoclast
e. Bone lining cell


What is bone formation called when the bone is formed directly, without using a cartilage template?
a. Intraosseous
b. En bloc
c. Intramembranous
d. Endochondral
e. Endosteum


^ What forms the epiphyseal growth plate?
a. Elastic cartilage
b. Fibrocartilage
c. Hyaline cartilage
d. Compact bone
e. Spongy bone


Which type of bone has spicules?
a. Immature bone
b. Dense bone
c. Compact bone
d. Cancellous bone
e. Woven bone


^ What sits in a lacuna?
a. Osteoclast
b. Osteon
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoblast
e. Osteoid


What is dense bone?
a. Immature bone
b. Cancellous bone
c. Compact bone
d. Woven bone
e. Spongy bone


Which cell is a resting osteoblast?
a. Chondrocyte
b. Chondroblast
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoclast
e. Bone lining cell


^ What are the mineral crystals in bone called?
a. Hydroxyapatite
b. Calcite
c. Tourmaline
d. Rubellite
e. Indicolite


What is the cylindrical structure in compact bone?
a. Osteoclast
b. Osteon
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoblast
e. Osteoid


^ What are Sharpey's fibers?
a. Elastic fibers
b. Collagen fibers
c. Reticular fibers
d. Trabeculae
e. Dense regular connective tissue


What is the space that an osteocyte rests in?
a. Canaliculi
b. Sharpey's fibers
c. Trabeculae
d. Tome's process
e. Lacuna


^ What is bone formation called when the bone is formed from a cartilage template?
a. Intraosseous
b. En bloc
c. Intramembranous
d. Endochondral
e. Endosteum


What is the primary component of red marrow?
a. Hematopoietic tissue
b. Fat
c. Cartilage
d. Fibrous tissue
e. Bone


^ What cell is an immature bone cell?
a. Osteoclast
b. Osteon
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoblast
e. Osteoid


What is bundle bone?
a. Cancellous bone
b. Compact bone
c. Dense bone
d. Spongy bone
e. Immature bone


What is cancellous bone?
a. Dense bone
b. Woven bone
c. Immature bone
d. Compact bone
e. Spongy bone


^ What cell is involved in laying down new bone?
a. Osteoclast
b. Osteon
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoblast
e. Osteoid


What is in the bone matrix?
a. Elastic fibers
b. Collagen fibers
c. Reticular fibers
d. Dense irregular connective tissue
e. Dense regular connective tissue


^ What are the small tunnels seen in bone?
a. Canaliculi
b. Sharpey's fibers
c. Trabeculae
d. Tome's process
e. Lacuna


What is the hollow area underneath an osteoclast called?
a. Space of Disse
b. Space of Mall
c. Vacuole
d. Lacuna
e. Howship's lacuna


^ What is the covering of a bone?
a. Perimysium
b. Periosteum
c. Perichondrium
d. Perineurium
e. Endosteum


What forms the articular surface on bones?
a. Spongy bone
b. Compact bone
c. Hyaline cartilage
d. Elastic cartilage
e. Fibrocartilage


^ What is the primary component of yellow marrow?
a. Hematopoietic tissue
b. Fat
c. Cartilage
d. Fibrous tissue
e. Bone


What is another term for the Haversian system?
a. Osteoclast
b. Osteon
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoblast
e. Osteoid


^ What is nonlamellar bone?
a. Woven bone
b. Dense bone
c. Cancellous bone
d. Compact bone
e. Spongy bone


What is the mature bone cell called?
a. Osteoclast
b. Osteon
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoblast
e. Osteoid


^ What is immature bone?
a. Dense bone
b. Woven bone
c. Cancellous bone
d. Compact bone
e. Spongy bone


What is unmineralized bone matrix?
a. Osteoclast
b. Osteon
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoblast
e. Osteoid


What are the collagen fibers that extend into bone at an angle called?
a. Canaliculi
b. Sharpey's fibers
c. Trabeculae
d. Tome's process
e. Lacuna


^ Which cell is the mature bone cell?
a. Chondrocyte
b. Chondroblast
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoclast
e. Bone lining cell


What is the lining of the inner bone on the side which abuts the medullary cavity?
a. Perimysium
b. Periosteum
c. Perichondrium
d. Perineurium
e. Endosteum


^ What forms the skeleton of the fetus?
a. Elastic cartilage
b. Hyaline cartilage
c. Fibrocartilage
d. Spongy bone
e. Compact bone


Which of the following is a multinucleated cell?
a. Osteoclast
b. Osteon
c. Osteocyte
d. Osteoblast
e. Osteoid


^ What is spongy bone
a. Immature bone
b. Compact bone
c. Cancellous bone
d. Dense bone
e. Woven bone


Muscle tissue


What is the connective tissue covering of a muscle fascicle?
a. Sarcolemma
b. Endomysium
c. Epimysium
d. Sarcoplasm
e. Perimysium


^ What is actin?
a. Myofilament
b. Myosin
c. Muscle fibers
d. Myofibrils
e. Myocardium


Which of the following is composed of smooth muscle?
a. Upper esophagus
b. Heart
c. Tongue
d. Biceps muscle
e. Walls of the visceral organs


^ What is a receptor in muscle?
a. Motor unit
b. Motor neuron
c. Motor end plate
d. Neuromuscular spindle
e. Neurotransmitter


Which fiber type is larger in diameter?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ Which fiber type is make up fast-twitch muscle?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


Which fiber type has more myoglobin?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ Which fiber type gets its energy primarily from glycogen?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


Which fiber type is seen in skeletal muscle?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ What is line that bisects the dark band in muscle?
a. A band
b. I band
c. Z line
d. H band
e. M line


What is the outer connective tissue covering of a muscle?
a. Epimysium
b. Sarcoplasm
c. Perimysium
d. Sarcolemma
e. Endomysium


^ What is myosin?
a. Muscle fibers
b. Myofibrils
c. Myocardium
d. Myofilament
e. Muscle cell


Where is cardiac muscle found?
a. Myofilaments
b. Myosin
c. Muscle fibers
d. Myofibrils
e. Myocardium


What type of muscle has visible cross striations?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"


^ What type of muscle is specialized for contraction?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"


What is released at a synapse?
a. Motor unit
b. Motor neuron
c. Motor end plate
d. Neuromuscular spindle
e. Neurotransmitter


^ Which fiber type is more resistant to fatigue?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


Lance Armstrong is the seven time winner of the Tour de France. The Tour de France is a bicycle race which covers between 3500 to 4000 kilometers. What type of muscle fiber probably predominates in his legs?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ What region is made of thin filaments?
a. A band
b. I band
c. Z line
d. H band
e. M line


On a cross section of a muscle, how many thin filaments surround each thick filament?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 6
e. 8


What is the plasma membrane of a muscle cell called?
a. Endomysium
b. Sarcolemma
c. Sarcoplasm
d. Perimysium
e. Epimysium


^ What are the thin filaments?
a. Myocardium
b. Myofibrils
c. Myofilaments
d. Muscle fibers
e. Myosin


Which of the following is composed of skeletal muscle?
a. Tongue
b. Blood vessel
c. Walls of the visceral organs
d. Lower esophagus
e. Heart


^ What type of muscle is composed of spindle shaped cells?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"


What type of muscle is always multinucleated?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"


^ Which fiber type is smaller in diameter?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


Which fiber type fatigues more readily?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ What type of muscle probably predominates in Charles Atlas, the worlds most famous power weight lifter?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


What is line that bisects the light band in muscle?
a. A band
b. I band
c. Z line
d. H band
e. M line


^ What is the name of the tissue which surrounds muscle fascicles?
a. Perimysium
b. Periosteum
c. Perichondrium
d. Perineurium
e. Endosteum


What is the covering of an individual muscle fiber?
a. Sarcoplasm
b. Perimysium
c. Endomysium
d. Epimysium
e. Sarcolemma


^ What are the thick filaments composed of?
a. Myofilaments
b. Myosin
c. Muscle fibers
d. Myofibrils
e. Myocardium


Which of the following is composed of cardiac muscle?
a. Biceps muscle
b. Tongue
c. Heart
d. Upper esophagus
e. Walls of the visceral organs


^ What type of muscle contains centrally placed nuclei?
a. Smooth muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Skeletal muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"


What is the point that a neuron contacts a muscle called?
a. Motor unit
b. Motor neuron
c. Motor end plate
d. Neuromuscular spindle
e. Neurotransmitter


^ Which fiber type makes up slow-twitch muscle?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


Which fiber type uses more anaerobic metabolism?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ What is the dark band in muscle?
a. A band
b. I band
c. Z line
d. H band
e. M line


What bisects the H band?
a. A band
b. I band
c. Z line
d. E band
e. M line


What type of muscle has intercalated discs?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"


^ What is the cytoplasm of a muscle cell?
a. Epimysium
b. Sarcolemma
c. Endomysium
d. Sarcoplasm
e. Perimysium


What is another term for muscle cells?
a. Myofilaments
b. Myosin
c. Muscle fibers
d. Myofibrils
e. Myocardium


^ Which of the following contains a substantial amount of smooth muscle?
a. Upper esophagus
b. Blood vessels
c. Heart
d. Biceps muscle
e. Tongue


What type of muscle contains actin and myosin?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"


^ What is a single neuron and the aggregation of muscle fibers innervated by that single neuron called?
a. Motor unit
b. Motor neuron
c. Motor end plate
d. Neuromuscular spindle
e. Neurotransmitter


Which fiber type has a lot of mitochondria?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


^ Which fiber type uses more aerobic metabolism?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


What is the light band in muscle?
a. A band
b. I band
c. Z line
d. H band
e. M line


^ What type of muscle contains sarcomeres?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"


What type of muscle has branching cells?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Cardiac muscle
c. Smooth muscle
d. Both "a" and "b"
e. "a" "b" and "c"


^ Which fiber type is seen in smooth muscle?
a. Red fibers
b. White fibers
c. Intermediate fibers
d. All of the above
e. None of the above


A sarcomere is defined as the segment from _____ to ____?
a. A band
b. I band
c. Z line
d. H band
e. M line


^ What are the bundle of longitudinal contractile elements within a muscle cell called?
a. Myofilaments
b. Myosin
c. Muscle fibers
d. Myofibrils
e. Myocardium


Nerve tissue.

In the microspacemen of spinal medulla it is necessary to analyse the condition of the nucleus, neurons of which form the motor endings in the skeletal musculature. What nucleus of the spinal medulla is it about?

  1. Posterior horn proper nucleus

  2. Gray substance proper nucleus

  3. Nucleus thoracicus (Clarke'snucleus)

  4. Nucleus intermediolaterallis

  5. Disseminate nucleus


The ventral roots of 5 frontal segment of spinal cord were cut during experiment in the animal. What changes will take place in the innervation region?

  1. Loss of temperature sensitivity

  2. Loss of touch sensitivity

  3. Loss of movements

  4. Loss of proprioceptive sensitivity

  5. Hypersensitivity


Victim has elbow joint trauma with avulsion of medial epicondyle of humerus. What nerve can be damaged in this trauma?

  1. Cardiac cutaneous nerve

  2. Radial

  3. Ulnar

  4. Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

  5. Musculocutaneous nerve



Sense organs.


The increased intraocular tension is observed in the patient with glaucoma. Secretion of aqueous humor by the ciliar body is normal. Injury of what structure of the eyeball wall caused the disorder of fluid flow-out from the anterior chamber?

  1. Back epithelium of cornea

  2. Venous sinus

  3. Choroid

  4. Ciliary muscle

  5. Ciliar body


Middle part of cochlear of internal ear was destroyed in animal while experiment. It will cause abnormalities of the sound perception of the following frequencies:

  1. High and low

  2. No abnormalities

  3. High

  4. Middle

  5. Low


A 25-year-old patient complained of the decreased vision. Accommodation disorders, dilated pupil, not reacting on the light were revealed on examination. Function of what muscles is disturbed?

  1. Lateral rectus muscle, pupil narrowing

  2. Pupil dilating muscle, ciliary

  3. Pupil narrowing and dilating muscle

  4. Pupil narrowing muscle, ciliary

  5. Inferior oblique muscle, ciliary


The increased intraocular tension is observed in the patient with glaucoma. Secretion of aqueous humor by the ciliar body is normal. Injury of what structure of the eyeball wall caused the disorder of flow-out from the anterior chamber?

  1. Venous sinus

  2. Choroid

  3. Ciliar body

  4. Ciliary muscle

  5. Back epithelium of cornea



Contraction of the ciliary muscles:

  1. Is under involuntary control

  2. Is required for focusing on near objects

  3. Allows accommodation

  4. Pulls the ciliary body anteriorly


The pigmented epithelium of the retina:

  1. Rests on Bruch’s membrane

  2. Continues anteriorly over the ciliary body and iris

  3. Is derived from the outer wall of the optic cup

  4. Phagocytoses flattened vesicles shed by the cone cells


The structure that serves as the border between the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye is the:

  1. Iris

  2. Lens

  3. Zonule
1   2   3   4   5

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