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TRAINING INSTRUCTION

Topic 1: Hygiene as a science. Place and significance of Hygiene in medical sciences system and physician practical activities. Main laws of Hygiene. Hygienic Research Methods.


PURPOSE:

1. Master the knowledge about the hygiene as a science and the sanitation, their goals, tasks, components, significance of hygienic knowledge for doctors of different profile.

2. Learn the classification of hygienic methods and the facilities of the research of the environment and its influence on organism and health.

3. Get acquainted with the structure of Sanitary and Epidemiologic Service of Ukraine, ways and methods of the public health protection, disease prevention.


ISSUES FOR PRE-LESSON PREPARATION:

A concept of «prophylaxis» as one of basics of medicine, the hygiene and the sanitation as its components.

1. Basic concepts, methods and research facilities from physics, chemistry, biology, microbiology, physiology and other preceding courses which are used in research of environmental factors and their influence on human health.

2. Basics of the mathematical processing of medico-biological research results.


^ BASIC SKILLS:

1. The physical, chemical and bacteriological measuring of environmental objects and their influence on an organism.

2. Using the computers or calculators during the statistical processing of the results of hygienic researches.


CHECK BASELINE QUESTIONS:

1. Prophylaxis as the main principle of public health protection. Public and individual prophylaxis; the primary, secondary and tertiary prophylaxis.

2. The hygiene as a scientific discipline, its purpose, tasks, essence.

3. Methods of hygienic research, their classification, description.

4. Methods of the environment inspection (sanitary inspection and description; organoleptic, physical, chemical, bacteriological methods, their essence and usage in hygiene study).

5. Methods of research of the environmental influence on the human health (experimental physiological, biochemical, histological, histochemical, haematological, toxicological, natural experiment methods, clinical).

6. Setting of hygienic norms and regulations as a basis of environment and public health protection, its objects and types.

7. Distinctive features of setting of norms and regulations for natural environmental factors, and anthropogenic factors.

8. Principles of the hygienic norm and regulation setting, organizations, responsible for that. Sanitary and legal legislation on the environment and public health protection.

9. Sanitation as a practical application of hygienic regulations and sanitary norms and rules, its use in work of health-officers and doctors of other specialties.

10. Structure of the Sanitary and Epidemiologic Service of Ukraine. State and local sanitary control, preventive and regular sanitary control.

11. Structure of the Sanitary and Epidemiologic Stations of different subordination levels (regional, city, district, departmental), their tasks, forms of their work.


Mandatory Reading

Hygiene and ecology: Textbook for Higher Education Institutions / Ed. by V.G. Bardov. – Vinnytsya: Nova Kniga, 2009. – Topic 1: PP. 14-31.

Recommended Reading

1.Hygiene and Ecology: Text-book / Vladimir A. Korobchanskiy et al. – Kharkov, 2006. – Chapt. 1: PP. 9-13.

2.Lecture materials


^ TRAINING INSTRUCTION


Topic 2: Hygienic evaluation of radiant energy. Methods of intensity determination for ultraviolet radiation and its using for diseases prevention and air sanitation.

PURPOSE:

1.Become familiar with physical and biological characteristics of ultraviolet radiation (UVR).

2. Master the methods of measuring the ultraviolet radiation intensity.

3. Master the measures of the ultraviolet radiation intensity and the calculations of the exposure to it using the different measuring methods.


^ ISSUES FOR PRE-LESSON PREPARATION:

1. Nature, physical characteristics and spectral distribution of the solar radiation.

2. Physical characteristics, spectral distribution and biological effect of the ultraviolet radiation (UVR).

3. Dosimetric units and measuring methods of the UVR.


^ BASIC SKILLS:

1. Working with ultravioletmeter (uphymeter) according to its instruction.

2. Determination of the reagent titre and substance concentration by volumetric titrimerty methods.

3. Using the mathematical methods of the UVR intensity and dose assessment.


^ CHECK BASELINE QUESTIONS:

1. The nature of the solar radiation, basic constituent elements of corpuscular and electromagnetic portions of the solar radiation.

2. Spectral distribution of the ultraviolet diapason of the solar radiation at the edge of the atmosphere and earth surface (regions А, В, С). The ozone layer and its hygienic significance.

3 Artificial ultraviolet radiation sources, their physical and hygienic characteristics.

4. Main effects (biogenic and non-biogenic) of the UVR and their particularities for each of the UVR region separately.

5. Measuring methods of the UVR intensity – physical, photochemical, biological, mathematical (calculation).

6. Ultraviolet intensity measures used with these methods and their interrelation.

7. Erythemal, physiologic and preventive ultraviolet radiation doses.


Mandatory Reading:

Hygiene and ecology: Textbook for Higher Education Institutions / Ed. by V.G. Bardov. – Vinnytsya: Nova Kniga, 2009. – Topic 2: PP. 32-39.

Recommended Reading

1.Hygiene and ecology: Text-book / Vladimir A. Korobchanskiy et al. – Kharkov, 2006. – Chapt. 3: PP. 16-21.

2.Lecture materials


^ TRAINING INSTRUCTION


Topic 3: Hygienic evaluation of natural and artificial lighting in different premises.


PURPOSE:

    1. Learn the hygienic requirements for natural lighting in different premises.

    2. Master the geometrical, lighting engineering methods of natural lighting indices determination, to learn how to assess the results of instrumental measuring, and to draw a hygienic conclusion about natural lighting in differing premises.


^ ISSUES FOR PRE-LESSON PREPARATION:

Physical characteristics and hygienic significance of natural lighting, tasks and criteria of its assessment considering the type of visual works and functions of the premises.

2.1.2. External and internal factors that natural lighting level of the premises depends on.

2.1.3. Basic physiological functions of the visual analyzer (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity etc). Vision as an integral function of visual analyzer.

2.1.4. Main harmful effects of insufficient and excessive lighting on human health and work capacity. The influence of lighting on shortsightedness development.

2.1.5. Measuring methods and indices of the natural lighting.


^ BASIC SKILLS:


1. To determine and assess the geometrical indices of natural lighting in different premises.

2. To measure and assess the lighting using a luxmeter, the daylight factor (DF) determination and their hygienic assessment.

3. To assess the regimen of premises insolation.


^ CHECK BASELINE QUESTIONS:

1. Physical nature and the hygienic significance of lighting in different premises (residential, classrooms, workshops, medical and other).

2. Basic lighting engineering values (light power, light flow or luminous flux, spectrum, illumination, brightness, light transparency coefficient, and luminous emitance) and their measurement units (see appendix #1 - “The artificial lighting determination”).

3. Internal and external factors that influence the level of natural lighting in different premises.

4. Hygienic requirements for the natural lighting in different premises.

5. Indices and standards of natural lighting in different premises.

6. Geometrical methods of assessment of lighting in premises during preventive and regular sanitary control (lighting coefficient, angle of incidence, angle of aperture, depth, and premises depth coefficient determination).

7. Lighting engineering methods of lighting assessment in different premises. Lighting measurement by luxmeter. Determination of the daylight factor factual value during the regular sanitary control.

8. Methods of insolation regimen assessment in different premises.


Mandatory Reading

Hygiene and ecology: Textbook for Higher Education Institutions / Ed. by V.G. Bardov. – Vinnytsya: Nova Kniga, 2009. – Topic 4,5: PP. 47-54, 55-64.

Recommended Reading

1.Hygiene and ecology: Text-book / Vladimir A. Korobchanskiy et al. – Kharkov, 2006. – Chapt. 13: PP. 59-63.

2.Lecture materials


^ TRAINING INSTRUCTION


Topic 4: Hygienic evaluation of the temperature-humidity conditions in premises. Hygienic evaluation of air movement direction and air velocity.


PURPOSE:

  1. Substantiate the hygienic significance of microclimate for different premises (residential, public/social, industrial) and master the measurement and hygienic assessment of its following parameters: air temperature, radiant temperature, relative humidity, air velocity.


^ ISSUES FOR PRE-LESSON PREPARATION:

1. Definition of «microclimate» and factors, which influence its formation.

2. Physiological basics of human heat exchange and thermoregulation, their dependence on the microclimate: physiological reactions in the comfortable or uncomfortable (hot or cold) microclimate.


^ BASIC SKILLS:

1. To measure the indoor air temperature, radiant temperature, air humidity and to assess the temperature and humidity conditions of different premises (residential, public/social, industrial).


CHECK BASELINE QUESTIONS:

1. Definition of “microclimate” and factors that influence its formation.

2. Physiological mechanisms of heat exchange and thermoregulation as factors in the warm-blooded organism thermal status: heat production and loss. The heat loss ways: through respiration and skin, with discharges.

3. Chemical mechanisms of heat production (Krebs cycle and others) and physical mechanisms of heat loss: radiation, conduction (convection and conduction), evaporation. The quantity of heat (in percentage) lost by organism by each of these ways in comfortable conditions.

4. Laws explaining physical mechanisms of heat loss (Stephan-Boizmann distribution law, the basic law of thermodynamics, the latent heat of evaporation).

5. Physiological changes in thermoregulation mechanisms in hot and cold microclimate.

6. The air humidity indices: absolute, maximum and relative humidity, physiological humidity, humidity deficit, physiological humidity deficit, dew point and their hygienic significance.

7. Devices for measuring the air temperature, radiant temperature, air humidity indices and their operation.


Mandatory Reading

Hygiene and ecology: Textbook for Higher Education Institutions / Ed. by V.G. Bardov. – Vinnytsya: Nova Kniga, 2009. – Topic 6. PP. 65-78, 78-87.


Recommended Reading

1.Hygiene and ecology: Text-book / Vladimir A. Korobchanskiy et al. – Kharkov, 2006. – Chapt. 5, 13: PP. 26-29, 63-67.

2.Lecture materials


Тopic 5 (Part 1): Hygienic evaluation of air quality and ventilation efficiency.

PURPOSE:

1. Master the methods of the hygienic assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using subjective and objective physiological parameters.

2. Master the objective methods of assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using the effective (ET), the equivalent-effective (EET), resultant temperatures (RT)’ nomograms, the catathermometer method and the organism heat balance calculation.

^ ISSUES FOR PRE-LESSON PREPARATION:

1. Main thermodynamical and physiological principles of human heat-exchange and thermoregulation (at the basic level of biophysics, biochemistry and physiology knowledge).

2. Hygienic significance of microclimate in different types of premises, its variants and characteristics.

3. Influence of comfortable and uncomfortable (hot and cold) microclimate on human body.

4. Subjective and objective characteristics of the organism heat balance.

^ BASIC SKILLS:

1. To measure and assess the microclimate characteristics (air temperature, radiant temperature, air humidity and air movement).

2. To measure and assess the influence of the microclimate on physiological parameters of the organism heat exchange and thermoregulation (respiratory rate, heartbeat rate, blood pressure, body and skin temperature, sweating intensity, skin electroconductivity), to evaluate the subjective temperature sensation of the patient, using his physiological and psychoemotional reactions.

3. Master the methods of the hygienic assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using subjective and objective physiological parameters.

4. Master the objective methods of assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using the effective (ET), the equivalent-effective (EET), resultant temperatures (RT)’ nomograms, the catathermometer method and the organism heat balance calculation.

^ CHECK BASELINE QUESTIONS:

1. The microclimate and the factors defining it.

2. Air and radiant temperature; their hygienic significance. The main laws of thermodynamics, Stephan-Boizmann law.

3. Air humidity characteristics (absolute, maximum, relative, physiological humidity, humidity deficiency, physiological humidity deficiency, dew point) and their hygienic significance.

4. Movement speed of the atmospheric and indoor air; their hygienic significance.

5. Devices for measuring of microclimate characteristics, their structure and measurement procedures.

6. General methods of hygienic assessment of the meteorological factors and indoor microclimate.

7. Thermal balance and heat exchange between organism and environment. The physiologic and hygienic characteristics of heat production and heat emission. The subjective and objective parameters of organism heat exchange.

8. Cold microclimate and its influence on human. The physiological reactions and diseases caused by cold microclimate (overcooling, frostbite etc.).

9. Hot microclimate and its influence on human. The physiological and pathological indications of acute and chronic overheating. Sunstroke and heat stroke. Prevention of overheating.

10. Methods of assessment of the influence of indoor microclimate on human: the catathermometer method, the methods of effective, equivalent-effective, resultant temperature nomograms, their comparative hygienic characteristics.

11. Calculation and complex hygienic assessment of human heat balance: calculation of heat production and heat emission (by irradiation, convection, evaporation and total) depending on microclimate.

Mandatory Reading

Hygiene and ecology: Textbook for Higher Education Institutions / Ed. by V.G. Bardov. – Vinnytsya: Nova Kniga, 2009. – Topic 8: PP. 87-98.

Recommended Reading

1.Hygiene and ecology: Text-book / Vladimir A. Korobchanskiy et al. – Kharkov, 2006. – Chapt. 7, 9: PP. 36-40, 44-46.

2.Lecture materials


^ TRAINING INSTRUCTION


Тopic 5 (Part II): Hygienic evaluation of integrated influence of microclimatic parameters on Human Heat Exchange.

PURPOSE:

1. Master the methods of the hygienic assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using subjective and objective physiological parameters.

2. Master the objective methods of assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using the effective (ET), the equivalent-effective (EET), resultant temperatures (RT)’ nomograms, the catathermometer method and the organism heat balance calculation.


^ ISSUES FOR PRE-LESSON PREPARATION:

1. Main thermodynamical and physiological principles of human heat-exchange and thermoregulation (at the basic level of biophysics, biochemistry and physiology knowledge).

2. Hygienic significance of microclimate in different types of premises, its variants and characteristics.

3. Influence of comfortable and uncomfortable (hot and cold) microclimate on human body.

4. Subjective and objective characteristics of the organism heat balance.

^ BASIC SKILLS:

1. To measure and assess the microclimate characteristics (air temperature, radiant temperature, air humidity and air movement).

2. To measure and assess the influence of the microclimate on physiological parameters of the organism heat exchange and thermoregulation (respiratory rate, heartbeat rate, blood pressure, body and skin temperature, sweating intensity, skin electroconductivity), to evaluate the subjective temperature sensation of the patient, using his physiological and psychoemotional reactions.

3. Master the methods of the hygienic assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using subjective and objective physiological parameters.

4. Master the objective methods of assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using the effective (ET), the equivalent-effective (EET), resultant temperatures (RT)’ nomograms, the catathermometer method and the organism heat balance calculation.

^ CHECK BASELINE QUESTIONS:

1. The microclimate and the factors defining it.

2. Air and radiant temperature; their hygienic significance. The main laws of thermodynamics, Stephan-Boizmann law.

3. Air humidity characteristics (absolute, maximum, relative, physiological humidity, humidity deficiency, physiological humidity deficiency, dew point) and their hygienic significance.

4. Movement speed of the atmospheric and indoor air; their hygienic significance.

5. Devices for measuring of microclimate characteristics, their structure and measurement procedures.

6. General methods of hygienic assessment of the meteorological factors and indoor microclimate.

7. Thermal balance and heat exchange between organism and environment. The physiologic and hygienic characteristics of heat production and heat emission. The subjective and objective parameters of organism heat exchange.

8. Cold microclimate and its influence on human. The physiological reactions and diseases caused by cold microclimate (overcooling, frostbite etc.).

9. Hot microclimate and its influence on human. The physiological and pathological indications of acute and chronic overheating. Sunstroke and heat stroke. Prevention of overheating.

10. Methods of assessment of the influence of indoor microclimate on human: the catathermometer method, the methods of effective, equivalent-effective, resultant temperature nomograms, their comparative hygienic characteristics.

11. Calculation and complex hygienic assessment of human heat balance: calculation of heat production and heat emission (by irradiation, convection, evaporation and total) depending on microclimate.

Mandatory Reading

1. Department Lecture

2. Hygiene and ecology: Textbook for Higher Education Institutions / Ed. by V.G. Bardov. – Vinnytsya: Nova Kniga, 2009. – Topic 8: PP. 87-98.

Recommended Reading

Hygiene and ecology: Text-book / Vladimir A. Korobchanskiy et al. – Kharkov, 2006. – Chapt. 5: PP. 26-29.


^ TRAINING INSTRUCTION

TOPIC 6: HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF CLIMATIC AND WEATHER CONDITIONS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH


PURPOSE:

1. Master the fundamental methods of collection, processing and analysis of hydrometeorologic and other information for the hygienic assessment of climate and weather in the region.

2. Master the scheme and methods of assessment of the weather and climate influence on human body and health. To elaborate hygienic recommendations for healthy and sick men for prevention of the heliometeorotropic reactions.


^ ISSUES FOR PRE-LESSON PREPARATION:

1. Physiology of human thermoregulation and adaptation.

2. Basics of the environmental hygiene.

3. Medical classification of the weather conditions.

4. Methods of medical and meteorological forecast.

5. Methods of heliometeorotropic reactions prevention (permanent, seasonal, urgent) for healthy and sick men suffering from different diseases.

6. General and applied medical classifications of climate.

7. Structure and organization of the climate and the weather conditions inspection and forecast services.

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