Examination questions on Hygiene in Pharmacy for the 3-year international students icon

Examination questions on Hygiene in Pharmacy for the 3-year international students




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EXAMINATION QUESTIONS


on Hygiene in Pharmacy


for the 3-year international students

of Pharmaceutical Faculty, Specialty: ‘Pharmaceutics’


(Teaching language - English)


GENERAL QUESTIONS

  1. Hygiene as a science, its place in the work of physician. Goal and aims, and methods of researches. Lows of hygiene. Main directions of modern hygiene researches.

  2. Principles of hygienic standardization.

  3. Structure and aims of Sanitary-Epidemiological Institution. Primary and current sanitary supervision.

MUNICIPAL HYGIENE

  1. Water supply and population health. Hygienic characteristic of water sources. Indices of potable water quality. The potable water State Standard. Sanitary supervision of water reservoirs.

  2. Methods of water quality improvement. Indices of water purification and disinfection quality. Hygienic requirements for shaft well and main stages of its sanitation.

  3. Soil as an element of biosphere and health factor. Hygienic significance of soil. Indices of soil sanitary state.

  4. Ventilation of premises and its hygienic significance. Methods of ventilation quality evaluation. Indices of ventilation efficiency.

  5. Solar radiation and its hygienic significance. Solar radiation spectrum, biological action, possible changes in human health state and their prevention.

  6. Infrared radiation as professional harmful factor. Physical properties and biological influence, devices and measuring units, possible changes in human health state and their prevention.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation as professional harmful factor. Physical properties and biological influence, devices and measuring units, possible changes in human health state and their prevention.

  8. Illumination and health. Hygienic requirements for illumination. Methods of natural and artificial illumination evaluation. Prevention of myopia among children and adolescents.

  9. Atmosphere as element of biosphere and health factor. Structure, composition, properties and influence on human health state, possible changes in human health state and their prevention.

  10. Climate and health. Definition, classification, climate-forming and climate characterizing factors. Hygienic significance of acclimatization.

  11. Weather and health. Definition, classification, weather-forming and weather characterizing factors. Prevention of geliometeotropic reactions.

  12. Microclimate. Definition, classification and characteristic of different types of microclimate. Changes in health state and possible diseases, their prevention.

  13. Main physical factors that form microclimate. Their determination and standardization for different premises. Ways of heat emission.

  14. Hygienic bases of populated areas sanitary cleaning. Hygienic principles of sanitary cleaning and indices of its quality.

  15. Hygienic requirements for collection, removal, disinfection and sterilization of solid wste and wastewater. Types of sewerage system organization.

  16. Dwelling and health. The influence of living conditions on human health. Hygienic requirements to the modern dwelling.

  17. Urbanization and its consequences. Characteristic of the urban environment and its influence on the health of population. Solutions of urbanization problems.

^ RADIATION HYGIENE

  1. Hygienic characteristics of ionizing radiation (physical properties, biological action, kinds of doses, equipment for detection and units, pathology connected with radiation). Principles of Radiation Control.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of radionuclides. Factors denoting character and degree of actinic injuries. Hygienic foundations of radionuclide diagnostics.

  3. Sanitary-Dosimetric Control. Method of determination of necessary radioprotection. Hygienic requirements to the planning, equipment and exploitation of Radiology Department at the hospital.

^ NUTRITION HYGIENE

  1. Hygienic principles of rational nutrition. Parameters of adequate and balanced nutrition. Peculiarities of nutrition in countries with hot climate.

  2. Classification and hygienic characteristic of main nutritive substances. Physiological need of nutrients and energy for different groups of population.

  3. Hygienic significance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in human nutrition. Diseases connected with insufficiency or extract of main nutrients and their prevention.

  4. Foodstuffs classification. Methods of their quality evaluation. Adulterated Food Products.

  5. Biological and Food Value of dairy products. Sanitary expertise of milk. Indication of milk spoiling and falsification. Prevention of the diseases transmitted by milk of poor quality.

  6. Nutritive and biological value of meat and fish products. Sanitary expertise of meat, fish and canned food, foodstuffs. Prevention of the diseases transmitted by meat and fish of poor quality.

  7. Nutritive and biological value of bread. Indication of flour quality and spoiling.

  8. Hygienic significance of vitamins and mineral substances. Hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis. Biogeochemical endemics prevention.

  9. Alimentary Diseases Prevention and Alimentary Conditioned Diseases Prevention. Human Nutritional Status and its basic kinds. Classification of Alimentary Diseases.

  10. Classification of Food Poisonings (Intoxications). Responsibilities of the doctor who diagnosed food intoxication. General scheme and procedure for food poisoning investigation.

  11. Food intoxications of bacteriological origin. Etiology, differential diagnosis, prevention.

  12. Hygienic bases of Medical-Dietary and Medical-Preventive Nutrition. Responsibilities of dietitian. Rules of food sampling.

PEDIATRIC Hygiene

  1. Hygienic foundations of learning-and-upbringing process at school (hygienic requirements to the schedule of lessons and daily regime, structure of lesson and its organization).

  2. Hygienic foundations of learning-and-upbringing process at secondary school. Hygienic requirements to the textbooks and children furniture. Method of desks’ marking and pupils sitting organization.

  3. Hygienic requirements to the daily regime of children and adolescents: basic regime elements and their tenure, hygienic principles of evaluation.

  4. Hygienic requirements to the land plot, planning and equipment of building and premises of children institution and secondary school.

  5. Physical development as criterion of health condition of children and adolescents. Criteria of physical development, rules of anthropometry and requirements to the Standards of Physical Development. Methods of physical development evaluation.

  6. Hygienic principles of complex evaluation of children health condition. Health groups. Physical development as the most important criterion of health condition.

PHARMACY Hygiene ^ AND HOSPITAL HYGIENE

  1. Hygienic principles of pharmacy construction and creation of optimum conditions for consumers and staff. Hygienic requirements to the land plot for pharmacy building.

  2. Hygienic requirements to pharmacy internal planning and sanitary-and-technical amenities.

  3. Hygienic requirements to the planning, exploitation and sanitary-and-technical amenities of different pharmacy departments.

  4. Sanitary-Ant-Epidemic Regimen in pharmacy.

  5. Basic ways of Nosocomial Infections Prevention in the pharmacy. Disinfection.

  6. Hygienic requirements to the ventilation, illumination and microclimate of different premises in the pharmacy.

  7. Occupational Harms of chemical nature at the work of pharmacist. Occupational Diseases caused by chemical factors influence and their prevention.

  8. Hygienic principles of hospital construction and creation of optimum conditions for patients stay and work of medical staff.

  9. Hygienic requirements to the land plot and to the hospital building, its internal planning and sanitary-and-technical amenities.

  10. Hygienic requirements to the planning, exploitation and sanitary-and-technical amenities of different hospital departments.

  11. Sanitary-Ant-Epidemic Regimen at the hospital. Basic ways of Nosocomial (Hospital) Infection Prevention at modern medico-preventive establishments. Disinfection.

  12. Hygienic requirements to the hospital ward. Method of study of microclimatic parameters and efficiency of ventilation in hospital ward. Hygienic aspects of organization of doctors’ work.

  13. Hygienic requirements to the ventilation, illumination and microclimate of premises at the hospital.

  14. Occupational Harms of chemical nature at the work of physician. Occupational Diseases caused by chemical factors influence and their prevention.


Labor Hygiene (occupational HYGIENE)

  1. Classification of kinds and forms of working activity. Hygienic assessment of hardness and intensity of labor. Methods of their study. Measures for fatigue prevention.

  2. Classification of industrial harmful factors. System of measures for prevention of professional diseases and industrial accidents. Labor protection of women and adolescents. Hygienic significance of preventive medical examinations.

  3. Dust as industrial harmful factor. Methods of study of dust in the air. Dust pathology and its prevention.

  4. Noise as industrial harmful factor (physical properties and biological action, equipment for determination of noise, units). Changes in health condition connected with noise influence and their prevention.

  5. Vibration as industrial harmful factor (physical properties and biological action, equipment for determination of noise, units). Changes in health condition connected with vibration influence and their influence.

  6. Electromagnetic irradiation as industrial harmful factor. Methods of study of electromagnetic irradiation. Pathology conditioned by electromagnetic irradiation and its prevention. Organizational measures for prevention of harmful influence of microwave field.

  7. Carbon Oxide as industrial harmful factor, its biological action. Changes in health condition connected with Carbon Oxide’s influence and their prevention.

  8. Lead as industrial harmful factor. Changes in health condition connected with lead’s influence and their prevention. Methods of determination of harmful chemical compounds in the air of industrial premises.

  9. Mercury as industrial harmful factor. Changes in health condition connected with lead’s influence and their prevention. Methods of determination of harmful chemical compounds in the air of industrial premises.

  10. Nitrogen compounds as industrial harmful factor, its biological action. Changes in health condition connected with influence of Nitrogen compounds and their prevention.

  11. Ecological Expertise in the chemical-and-pharmaceutical enterprises. Ecological Passport of the Enterprise. Efficiency assessment of activities for health protection from pollution caused by chemical-pharmaceutical enterprises.

  12. Hygiene of Mental Work. Principles of Labor Scientific Organization.

  13. Foundations of Psychohygiene (Mental Hygiene) and Mental Health Promotion.

  14. Hygienic foundations of Medical Biorhythmology.

  15. Personal Hygiene as a base of healthy lifestyle forming. Hygienic requirements for daily wear, footwear, and household goods.

  1. Hygiene of oral cavity. Classification and hygienic evaluation of Oral Cavity Care Tools (toothbrushes, tooth-picks, tooth-powders, tooth-pastes). Rules of storage of tools for oral cavity care.

  1. Hygienic basis of healthy lifestyle forming. Risk factors and their prevention. Hardening of the organism.

Situational tasks

  1. Situational task on Municipal Hygiene.

  2. Situational tasks on Radiation Hygiene.

  3. Situational task on Nutrition Hygiene.

  4. Situational tasks on Pediatric Hygiene.

  5. Situational task on Pharmacy Hygiene.

  6. Situational task on Hospital Hygiene.

  7. Situational tasks on Labor Hygiene (Occupational Health).

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