on Hygiene in Pharmacy
for 3rd year international students of Pharmaceutical Faculty
(Specialty – Pharmaceutics)
Purpose: To strengthen theoretical issues of Hygiene, Hygiene of Pharmaceutical Institutions and Pharmaceutical enterprises, to encourage forming of Hygienic thinking and Hygienic skills.
Hygiene as a science, its place in the work of pharmacist. Goal and aims, and methods of researches. Laws of hygiene. Main directions of modern hygiene researches.
Principles of hygienic standardization. Hygienic questions in the WHO preventive programs.
Structure and aims of sanitary-and-epidemiological station. Primary and current sanitary supervision.
Personal hygiene as a base of healthy life style formation. Hygienic requirements for clothes, shoes, and household goods.
Hygiene of oral cavity. Hygienic evaluation of tools for mouth cavity care (toothbrushes, tooth-picks, tooth-powders, tooth-pastes).
Water supply and population health. Hygienic characteristic of water sources. Indices of potable water quality. The potable water State Standard. Sanitary supervision of water reservoirs.
Methods of water quality improvement. Indices of water purification and disinfection quality. Hygienic requirements for shaft well and main stages of its sanitation.
Soil as an element of biosphere and health factor. Hygienic significance of soil. Indices of soil sanitary state.
Ventilation of premises and its hygienic significance. Methods of ventilation quality evaluation. Indices of ventilation efficiency.
Solar radiation and its hygienic significance. Solar radiation spectrum, biological action, possible changes in human health state and their prevention.
Infrared radiation as professional harmful factor. Physical properties and biological influence, devices and measuring units, possible changes in human health state and their prevention.
Ultraviolet radiation as professional harmful factor. Physical properties and biological influence, devices and measuring units, possible changes in human health state and their prevention.
Illumination and health. Hygienic requirements for illumination. Methods of natural and artificial illumination evaluation. Prevention of myopia among children and adolescents.
Atmosphere as element of biosphere and health factor. Structure, composition, properties and influence on human health state, possible changes in human health state and their prevention.
Climate and health. Definition, classification, climate-forming and climate characterizing factors. Hygienic significance of acclimatization.
Weather and health. Definition, classification, weather-forming and weather characterizing factors. Prevention of meteotropous reactions.
Microclimate. Definition, classification and characteristic of different types of microclimate. Changes in health state and possible diseases, their prevention.
Main physical factors that form microclimate. Their determination and standardization for different premises. Ways of heat emission.
Hygienic bases of populated areas sanitary cleaning. Hygienic principles of sanitary cleaning and indices of its quality.
Hygienic requirements for collection, removal, disinfection and sterilization of hard and liquid wastes. Types of sewerage system organization.
Dwelling and health. The influence of living conditions on human health. Hygienic requirements to the modern dwelling.
Urbanization and its consequences. Characteristic of the urban environment and its influence on the health of population. Solutions of urbanization problems.
Hygienic principles of pharmaceutical institutions building and creation of optimum conditions for work of medical staff. Hygienic requirements to the land plot and to the building.
Hygienic requirements to the land plot of pharmacy, its internal planning, sanitary-and-technical amenities. Sanitary-and-Epidemiological Regime.
Hygienic requirements to the hospital ward. Method of study of microclimatic parameters and efficiency of ventilation in hospital ward. Hygienic aspects of organization of doctors’ work.
Hygienic requirements to the ventilation, illumination and microclimate of premises in a drugstore.
Professional harmful factors of chemical nature in work of pharmacist. Professional diseases specified by chemical factors influence and their prevention.
Dust as industrial harmful factor. Methods of study of dust in the air. Dust pathology and its prevention.
Noise and vibration as industrial harmful factors (physical properties and biological action, equipment for determination of noise and vibration, units). Changes in health condition connected with noise and vibration influence and their prevention.
Electromagnetic irradiation as industrial harmful factor. Methods of study of electromagnetic irradiation. Pathology conditioned by electromagnetic irradiation and its prevention. Organizational measures for prevention of harmful influence of microwave field.
Carbon Oxide as industrial harmful factor, its biological action. Changes in health condition connected with Carbon Oxide’s influence and their prevention.
Lead and mercury as industrial harmful factor. Changes in health condition connected with their influence and their prevention. as industrial harmful factor. Methods of determination of harmful chemical compounds in the air of industrial premises.
Nitrogen compounds and carbon oxide as industrial harmful factors, their biological action. Changes in health condition connected with influence of nitrogen and carbon oxide compounds and their prevention.
Hygienic characteristics of ionizing radiation (physical properties, biological action, kinds of doses, equipment for detection and units, pathology connected with radiation). Principles of Radiation Control.
Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of radionuclides. Factors denoting character and degree of actinic injuries.
Hygienic foundations of radionuclide diagnostics.
Hygienic requirements to the planning, equipment and exploitation of Nuclear Medicine Department. Sanitary-Dosimetric Control. Methods of Radioprotection.
Hygienic requirements to the planning, equipment and exploitation of Radiology Department of hospital. Sanitary-Dosimetric Control. Methods of determination of necessary radioprotection.
Hygiene of Mental Work. Principles of scientific organization of labor. Hygienic foundations of medical biorhythmology. Foundations of psychohygiene and Mental Health Promotion.
Responsibilities of industrial physician in questions of providing of healthy conditions of work and professional diseases prevention. Hygienic foundations of prevention and rehabilitation of professionally conditioned diseases.
Hygienic foundations of learning-and-upbringing process at school (hygienic requirements to the schedule of lessons and daily regime, structure of lesson and its organization).
Hygienic foundations of learning-and-upbringing process at secondary school. Hygienic requirements to the textbooks and children furniture. Method of desks’ marking and pupils sitting organization.
Hygienic requirements to the daily regime of children and adolescents: basic regime elements and their tenure, hygienic principles of evaluation.
Physical development as criterion of health condition of children and adolescents. Criterions of physical development, rules of anthropometry and requirements to the Standards of Physical Development. Methods of physical development evaluation.
Hygienic principles of complex evaluation of children health condition. Health groups. Physical development as the most important criterion of health condition.
Professional orientation and professional choice.
Hygienic principles of rational nutrition. Indices of adequate and balanced nutrition. Peculiarities of nutrition in hot countries.
Classification and hygienic characteristic of main nutrition substances. Physiological need of nutrients and energy for different groups of population.
Hygienic significance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in human nutrition. Diseases connected with insufficiency or extract of main nutrients and their prevention.
Foodstuffs classification. Methods of their quality evaluation. Falsified products.
Hygienic significance of vitamins and mineral substances. Hypovitaminoses and avitaminoses. Biogeochemical endemics prevention.
Prophylaxis of diseases connected with nutrition. Food status and its kinds. Classification of the diseases connected with nutrition.
Food intoxications of bacteriological origin. Etiology, differential diagnosis, prevention.
The problems of rational nutrition in tropical conditions. Diseases connected with nutrition in tropical climate and their prevention.
Methods of hygienic evaluation of natural illumination.
Methods of hygienic evaluation of artificial illumination.
Method of determination of individual sensitiveness to ultraviolet radiation.
Methods of determination of thermal regimen in premises.
Methods of determination of air humidity, devices.
Methods of hygienic determination of air movement speed in premises.
Method of determination of ventilation efficiency by CO2 concentration.
Methods of evaluation of artificial ventilation efficiency by definition of the frequency rate of air exchange.
Generalized scheme of the object sanitary-hygienic investigation.
Main stages of the water sanitary expertise.
Methods of a well sanitary inspection.
Methods of the soil sanitary inspection.
Methods of sanitary expertise of canned products.
Methods of evaluation of nutrition adequacy and balancing.
Methods of reading of hospital construction project.
Methods of investigation of professional intoxications and diseases cases.
Hygienic assessment of hospital and everyday wear.
Methods of evaluation of health, well-being and physical development of children and adolescents.
Methods of hygienic evaluation of school time-table.
Methods of determination of dust and toxic chemical substances in the air.
Topics of situational tasks:
Hygienic evaluation of milk and bread quality.
Hygienic evaluation of children physical development by sigmal deviation method.
Evaluation of radiological safety.
Water analysis interpreting.
Hygienic evaluation of drinking water disinfection quality.
Evaluation of artificial ventilation efficiency.
Hygienic evaluation of premises’ microclimate.
Determination of dust concentration in the air of industrial premises.
Hygienic evaluation of a school time-table.
Analysis of a case of food poisoning.
Hygienic evaluation of influence on a human organism of ultraviolet and infrared radiation.
Hygienic evaluation of natural and artificial lighting.
Hygienic evaluation of nutrition adequacy and balance.
Hygienic evaluation of pharmacy construction project.
1. Department Lecture
2. Hygiene and ecology: Textbook for Higher Education Institutions / Ed. by V.G. Bardov. – Vinnytsya: Nova Kniga, 2009. – 688 p.
3. Hygiene and ecology: Text-book / Vladimir A. Korobchanskiy et al. – Kharkov, 2006. – 208 p.