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Krok Questions on plant cell structure




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Krok Questions on plant cell structure

1. It is known that depending on pH of cellular fluid petal coloration can vary from blue-and-violet to pink and light pink. This is caused by presence of:

A *Anthocyanins

B Carotins

C Xanthophylls

D Phycobilins

E Chlorophylls


2. Morphological signs of the herbaceous plant under examination are corresponding with the lilies of the valley’ features. For this hypothesis confirmation microscopy of leaf was conducted and ... was found out

A *Raphides

B Single crystals

C Druses

D Stiloides

E Crystalline sand

3. Albuminous inclusions are found out in the plant under colored reactions. In particular, at the xanthoproteic reaction under action of the concentrated nitric acid at heating proteins are stained into the ...

A *bright-yellow

B red

C orange

D violet

E dark blue


4. During examination of a plant cell under the electron microscope some structures in form of a stack of flattened membrane cisternae and vesicles were found. What organelles are these?

A * Golgi apparatus

B Endoplasmic reticulum

C Plastids

D Mitochondrion (mitochondria)

E Microbodies


5. Thin cuts of Inula helenium roots have sustained in 96 % ethanol. Under microscopy of these roots spheroid crystals were found out which shows presence of…

A *Inulin

B Starch

C Proteins

D Mucuses

E Fats

6. In monocots the final metabolism products are often represented by the parallel needle-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate, are collected in bundles. They are:

A *Raphides

B Druses

C Styloides

D Doubled crystals

E Crystalline sand

7. Shortly-existing starch is created in plant cell chloroplasts during the photosynthesis. This starch is breaking up to glucose quickly. This starch type is named:

A *Primary

B Secondary

C Transiting

D Protected

E Storing

8. An oat and rice are important food products, because of the main storing substances of these plants are:

A *Carbohydrates

B Proteins

C Fat oils

D Essential oils

E Mineral matters

9. Pigments, which perform the functions of antioxidants and are provitamins A, are components of plastids. They are:

A * Carotinoides

B Chlorophylls exclusively

C Carotinoides and chlorophylls

D Antochlores

E Antocyanes

10. A vegetational microspecimen was treated with Sudan III solution. As a result of it cell membranes turned pink that means they contain:

A. Hemicellulose

B. Pectin

C. Lignin

D. Cellulose

*E. Suberin


11. Microscopic examination of a potato tuber showed some cell inclusions that become blue-violet as affected by Lugol’s iodine solution. These inclusions are:

A * Starch granules

B Aleurone grains

C Drops of fatty oil

D Insulin crystals

E Calcium oxalate crystals


12. Microscopic examination of a ficus leaf revealed in some cells of its epidermis a protrusion of the cell membrane with an accumulation of crystals that dissolve in the hydrochloric acid and release carbonic acid gas. This structure is called:

A * Cystolith CaCO3

B Raphide

C Druse

D Single crystal

E Styloid


13. As a result of staining of a plant microslide with Sudan III solution the cell membranes turned pink. This indicates the presence of:

A * Suberin

B Cellulose

C Lignin

D Pectin

E Hemicellulose


14. After a plant microslide had been processed with phloroglucinol together with concentrated hydrochloric acid, the cell membranes turned crimson red. This indicates presence of:

A * Lignin

B Pectin

C Cellulose

D Hemicellulose

E Suberin


15. The section of a sunflower seed has been treated with Sudan III solution that caused pink-and-orange staining. This is the evidence of presence of:

A * Fatty oil

B. Protein

C. Starch

D. Inulin

E. Cellulose


16. Histochemical test for fixed oils with sudan III results in the following stain colour:

A * Pink and orange

B Blue and violet

C Lemon-yellow

D Raspberry-red

E Black and purple


Krok Questions on Tissues structure:

1. It is known that rhizome and roots of Inula helenium have cavities without distincts inner boundaries filled with essential oils. They are called:

A *Lysigenous receptacles

B Schizogenous receptacles

C Resin ducts

D Segmented lacticifers

E Nonsegmented lacticifers


2. At microscopy the intensively-green tissue is revealed. This tissue consisting of the living, columnous, densely closed cells are located perpendicularly to the organ surface. This parenchymal tissue is…

A *Palisade

B Friable

C Folded

D Storing

E Aerating

3. Microscopy of the needle-shaped leaf’ mesophyll revealed it is typical for the gymnosperms’ needles. This mesophyll is ...

A * Folded

B Palisade

C Spongy

D Folded an palisade

E Palisade and spongy

4. At the microscopy of the leaf one-layered tissue consisting of densely serried, living, colourless cells was revealed. This tissue is consisting complexes of paired pulled together half-moon-shaped cells with chloroplasts also. This structures are...

A * Stomata

B Hidatodes

C Trichomes

D Essential oil gland

E Lenticel


5. Microscopy of a leaf epidermis of ^ Convallaria majalis showed that the stomata had four accessory cells. Two of them were lateral, and two others were polar. What type of stomatal mechanism is it?

A* Tetracytic

B Diacytic

C Anisocytic

D Anomocytic

E Paracytic


6. Characteristic peculiarity of mechanic plant tissues is that they consist mainly of dead cells, but there is one type of mechanic tissues consisting of living cells. Which of the listed mechanic tissues contains the living protoplast?

A *Collenchyme

B Scleroids

C Libriform

D Perivascular fibers

E Phloem fibers


7. At the microscopy of leaf star-shaped sclereides were found. These are...

A *astrosclereides

B osteosclereides

C trichoclereides

D macrosclereides

E brahisclereides

8. The anatomically-histohemical analysis of petiole is revealed living parenchymatous cells under the epidermis. These cells have cellulose envelopes, thickened tangential walls that are parallel with the organ surface. They are…

A * Lamellar (Tangential) collenchyma

B Angular collenchyma

C Lacunar collenchyma

D Spongy parenchima

E Palisade parenchima


9. Extending of axial organ in a height is conditioned by creative activity of following meristem...

A *Apical

B Wound

C Intercalar

D lateral

E Secondary


10. Secretory cavities are found out on cuts of roots and rhizomes of medicinal valerian. They are surrounded by secretory cells are able to divide, which leads to the receptacle increasing. This is...

A * Schisogenial cavities (ducts)

B lysigenial cavities (ducts)

C Schisogenially-lysigenial cavities (ducts)

D articulated laticifers

E non-articulated laticifers


11. A phellogen appears from a pericycle or ground tissue that acquires of meristematic activity. Name type of tissue phellogen belongs to

A * forming (creating) tissue

B integumentary tissue

C secretory tissue

D mechanical tissue

E conducting tissue


12. The characteristic feature of mechanical tissues of plants is they consist of mainly dead cells, but there is one type of mechanical tissues, which consists of living cells. What cells in a mechanical tissues are listed below contain living protoplast?

A *collenchyma

B sclereids

C libriphorm

D perivascular tissues

E bast fibres


13. Characteristic feature of plants are belonging to spurge family are giant, much extended, branched cells with a constant cytoplasm and nucleus. Cells are living, cellular juice looks like emulsion, it is white, rarely yellow or orange in its color. These cells are:

A * Non-articulated laticifers

B Articulated laticifers

C Schizogenial cavities (ducts)

D Lysigenial cavities (ducts)

E Glands


14. These structures are present in all plant parts, they vary in form (may be branchy, sack- and tube-like), can contain balsams, resins, crystals and so on. What are these structures?

A *secretory cells

B nectaries

C hidatodes

D receptacles

E laticifers


15. While plants of Lamiaceae family contain essential oils, they are characterized by some smell. What hairs do these substances are accumulate in?

A *secretory

B asterous

C urticant

D underground

E tenacious


16. In determination of type and features of conducting bundles of axial organs it was taken into consideration the mutual location of phloem and xylem, presence of bundle sheath and...

A * cambium

B procambium

C collenchyma

D pericycle

E phellogen

17. Age of tree is shown with amount of annual rings in the...

A * wood

B bast

C cork

D pith

E primary bark

18. Prosenchymal, woody, dense skeletal tissue is identified in the series of microslides. It is…

A * sclerenchyma

B collenchyme

C parenchima

D aerenchyma

E cork

19. Microscopic examination of a stem of a perennial plant revealed integumentary tissue of secondary origin that was formed as a result of activity of:

A. Procambium

B. Pericycle

* C. Phellogen

D. Cambium

E. Protoderm

20. When studying a stem covered with periderm a researcher came to conclusion that gaseous exchange takes place through:

A. Pores

B. Hydatodes

C. Stomata

D. *Lenticels

E. Throughput cells

21. Microscopic examination of a leaf revealed on its serratures some water stomata that serve the purpose of liquid-drop moisture excretion, that is the process of:

A. Internal secretion

B. Transpiration

*C. Guttation

D. Gaseous exchange

E. Photosynthesis

22. Pulp of a needle leaf consists of living tissue with internal ansiform outgrowths, of membrane. Along these outgrowths the chloroplasts are placed. Name the type of this leaf's parenchyma:

*A. Folded

23. Spongy

C. Palisade

D. Aeriferous

E. Storage


24. Microscopic examination of leaf serration revealed secretory structures secreting some liquid. What are these structures called?

A * Hydatodes

B Nectaries

C Stomata

D Glandules

E Osmophores


25. Underneath the stem epidermis some layers of living perenchymal cells were found. The cells contained chloroplasts and had cellulose membranes with thickened angles (contact points). This tissue is called:

A *Angular collenchyme

B Lacunar collenchyme

C Lamellar collenchyme

D Storage parenchyme

E Chlorophyll-containing parenchyme


26. Microscopic examination of ground tissue of a small branch revealed cork and phelloderm. These are the derivates of:

A *Phellogen

B Cambium

C Procambium

D Protoderm

E Pericycle


27. Destruction of intercellular substance and cell breakaway in overripe fleshy fruits is a result of:

A *Maceration

B Lignification

C Mineralization

D Sliming

E Gummosis


28. While determining the type and characteristics of conducting bundles of axial organs one should take into account the positional relation between phloem and xylem and …

A *Cambium

B Procambium

C Collenchyme

D Pericycle

E Phellogen


Krok Questions on root structure:

1. A section of beet root has several layers of cambium that form additional conducting bundles. What is the structure of the given root?

A *Secondary, polycambial

B Secondary monocambial

C Primary, polycambial

D Primary, monocambial

E Transitional, monocambial


2 At microscopic research of a cross-section cut of a root the following was established: presence of periderm and year rings in vessel-disseminated wood. It is a root of:

A *Woody conifer (gymnosperm) plant

B Grassy dicot

C Arboreal dicot

D Grassy monocot

E Arboreal monocot

3. The conductive root zone provides movement of two flows and plant strengthening in soil also due to the presence of lateral roots, a leading role in formation of which belongs to...

A * Pericycle

B Intercalar meristem

C Apical meristem

D Palisade mesophyll

E Epibleme

4. Studying of genesis of the main root has shown that during the development it is formed from…

A * An embryonic root or radicle

B Apical meristem

C Pericycle

D Lateral meristem

E Intercalar meristem

5. At ageing the garden radish root crop becomes less juicy, storing xylem becomes porous and hardens as a result of considerable enlargement and wooding of…

A * Wood fibres

B Vessels

C Basts fibres

D Sieve tubes

E Companion cells


6. While examining structure of a root the students paid attention to an area where the superficial cells formed root fibrils. What root zone is it?

A *Suction (Absorption)

B Cell division

C Extension (Growth)

D Conduction

E Pileorhiza


7. The study of the main root ontogenesis shows that it has developed from:

A *Radicle (embryonic root)

B Apical meristem

C Pericycle

D Lateral meristem

E Intercalary meristem


8. After the deletion of root cap in a corn shoot new root cap is forming in a five days. In a spaceship, which is in the opened space, root cap does not regenerate. What is the reason of this fenomena?

A * Cap root is forming due to the terrestrial gravitation

B Cap root is forming due to the carbon dioxide presence in an atmosphere

C Cap root is forming due to the the photoperiodism

D Cap root is forming due to the difference of temperatures

E Cap root is forming due to the soil presence


9. On the root section of ^ Helianthus annuus a secondary fascicular structure was found. This means that the section was made in the zone of:

A * Fixation and conduction

B Growth and distension

C Absorption

D Dividing cells

E Root cap (pileorhiza)

10. Examination of a root revealed a tissue that has root hairs and doesn't have stomata and cuticle. What tissue is it?

A * Epiblema

B Epiderm

C Periderm

D Endoderm

E Exoderm


11. Storing substances are deposited in a tissue of a primary structure of root. This tissue is...

A * mesoderm

B exoderm

C pericycle

D endoderm

E central axial cylinder

12. Throughput cells of primary root are opposite to the vessels of xylem. What tissue are these cells characteristic for?

A * Endodrem

B pericycle

C mesoblast

D central axial cylinder

E exoderm

13. The root of dicotyledon acquires the second anatomic structure in an area:

A *conduction and strengthening

B Roots hairs

C Growth and differentiation

D Division

E Root cap

14. At the microscopy of transversal section of dicot root done in the area of suction, the row of cells with the lentiform, corked thickenings – Casparian Strips – were found out. These are cells of…


A *Endodermis

B Exodermis

C Mesoderm

D Pericycle

E Vascular cylinder

15. What vascular bundle type is characteristic for the primary anatomic structure of root?

A *Radial

B Concentric

C Collateral closed

D Bicollateral

E Collateral open

16. Roots with good developed aerenchyma are revealed in anatomic research of plants are living in soils with the extra moistening and lack of oxygen. These are:

A * Pneumatophorous roots

B Aerating roots

C Roots-suckers

D Edible roots

E Aquatic roots

17. Comparing of underground organs of grassy plants they made sure, that annual dicotyledons have mostly...

A * system of mainroot

B system of additional (lateral) roots

C rhizome

D bulb

E cormel

18. Section of Helianthus annuus root has a secondary fascicular formation, it means that the section was made in the zone of:

A. Absorption

*B. Fortification and conduction

C. Growth and elongation

D. Root cap

E. Fissionable cells

19. Microscopic examination of a root cortex in the absorbing zone revealed that it consists mainly of multilayer living loose parenchyma With starch granules. This is:

A. Phellogen

B. Collenchyme

C. Endoderm

D. Exoderm

*E. Mesoderm


^ Questions on stem structure:

1. During the anatomic analysis of parts of trihedral stem of herbaceous plant present in tea mixture was established main volume is occupied with a central cylinder where closed collateral vascular bundles are located irregularly. It can be stem of…

A * Lily of the valley

B St-john's-wort

C Horsetail

D Origanum

E Rye

2. It was the individual task to collect clodododes, which are modified…

A *stems

B leafs

C roots

D rhizomes

E flowers

3. In spring from a birch and poplar buds being are collected. They are...

A * rudimentary shoots

B embryos of sporophyte

C embryos of gametophyte

D reduced sporophyte

E reduced gametophyte

4. In the rhizome of grassy dicotyledon predominance of parenchima with inulin is determined. Central cylinder has bundled structure, while phloems and xylems conducting complexes are located…

A * by one circle

B by two-tree circles

C helter-skelter

D by continuous cylinders

E by radial areas

5. Hop sprouts wind around a support and climb upwards. That means that they are:

*A. Creeping

B. Arrect

C. Recumbent

D. Tenent

E. Trailing


6. Examination of a medicinal plant revealed that its underground organ had nodes, internodes, cataphylls, gemmae and secondary roots. Therefore, this underground organ is:

A * Rhizome

B Storage root

C Root bulb

D Stolon

E Tuber


7. Apical bud of a sprout stops its development early and growth is realized due to two lateral buds placed opposite one another under the apex. Such branching is called:

A * Pseudodichotomic

B Equidichotomic

C Monopodial

D Nonequidichotomic

E Bush


Questions on leaf structure:

1. Leaves of creeping couch-grass are attached to a stem by means of the lower filmy part of a linear leaf blade. It covers internodes and is named as leaf’s…

A *Sheath (ocrea or ochrea)

B Funnel

C Phyllody

D Cladody

E Tylosis

2. Under the microscopic examination of the water-lily leaf was observed. Stomata are arranged here on upper epidermis only. It means leaf is…

A *Epistomatous

B Amfistomatous

C Hypostomatous

D Isolateral

E Radial

3. At morphological research of leaf it is established that the veins are coming from the leaf base fanlikely. Lateral branches of these veins create a dense network of small veins, such leaf is veinated…

A *Palmately

B Pinnately

C Arcuate

D Parallel

E Simple


4. Leaves have morphological and anatomic plasticity, which is related to adaptations plant habit. What group of plants has following characteristics: epidermis has thick cuticle and has thick woody envelopes, stomata have a criptae covered by trichomes:

A * Xerophytes

B Mesophytes

C Hydrophytes

D Hyhrophytes

E Hydatophytes

5. Lamiaceae family members have pairs of leaves in two neighboring internodes arranged in mutually opposite planes, or...

A * crosswise-decussate

B two-layer-decussate

C wroled

D spiral

E in rosette

6. Leaves of Quercus robur in a form and level of cutting the leaf blade are...

A * pinnatilobed

B trifoliolate

C pinnatisect

D palmately-lobed

E palmatisect

7. A leaf of a plant under examination has a membranous ocrea that envelops the bottom of internode. Presence of such modified stipules is a diagnostic sign of the following family:

A. Legumes

B. Solanaceae

*C. Buckwheat

D. Gramineae

E. Rosaceae

8. Leaves of a plant under examination have a distinct main nerve (vein) in the middle with regularly diverging side nerves (veins). What type of nervation (veination) is it?

A. Parallel

B. Arcwise

C. Digitate

D. Dichotomic

* E.Pinnate

9. Pulp of a needle leaf consists of living tissue with inner ansiform protuberances of membrane and chloroplasts along them. What is type of this leaf's parenchyma?

A *Plicate (Folded)

B Spongioid

C Palisade

D Storage

E Aeriferous


10. Examination of a medicinal herb revealed that its leaves were divided down to the base of the leaf blade with segments radiating from a common point in a fan manner. These leaves are:

A *Palmatisected

B Pinnatisected

C Palmatipartite

D Pinnatipartite

E Palmatilobate


Questions on flower structure:

1. Simple monopodial inflorescence with shallow sedentary flowers and horizontally overgrowing main axis is characteristic for medicinal calendula. This inflorescence is…

A *Capitula

B Umbrella

C Catkin

D Head

E Corymb


2. What parts in the flower structure have the stem origin?

A * Pedicel and receptacle

B Receptacle and perianth

C Stamens and pistils

D Calyx and corolla

E Calyx and stamens


3. Male gametophyte of the flowering plants is…

A *Pollen grain

B Carpel

C Embryo sack

D Ovule

E Nucellus


4. The birch has compound inflorescences with drooping main axis bearing dichasia composed of unisexual cells. Therefore, this inflorescence is called:

A *Ament (Catkin)

B Raceme

C Spadix

D Spike

E Glomus


5. Examination of an inflorescence of sweet flag Acorus calamus L. revealed that it was encircled with a covering leaf (spathe) and small sessile flowers grew compactly on the thickened pulpy axis. Such inflorescence is called:

A *Ear

B Glomus

C Spike

D Umbel

E Corymb


6. Morphological analysis of an inflorescence revealed that its flowers were attached to the same axis at different levels but due to the various length of peduncle they grew in the same plane. Such inflorescence is called:

A *Corymb

B Anthodium

C Glomus

D Umbel

E Spike


7. Corolla of the origanum flower is zygomorphic, sympetalous and consists of a tube and two limbs. The upper limb is bilobate and the lower is trilobate. Such corolla is called:

A *Bilabiate

B Unilabiate

C Lingulate

D Thimble-like

E -


8. The female catkins of Betula penduta are scatter after ripening, freeing nut fruits, which are supplied...

A * by the pair of firmly wings

B by the pair of air bubbles

C by one large wing

D by a hairy crest

E by the bristly hooking


9. A flower has the androecium consisting of two long and two short stamens. Therefore the flower's androecium is:

A *Didynamous

B Tetradynamous

C Diadelphous

D Tetradelphous

E Polyadelphous


10. During the field practice a student found a plant with disk-shaped structure of its rachis, sessile flowers and husk. This inflorescence is called:

A *Anthodium (Capitilum)

B Spike

C Spadix (Ear)

D Glomus (Head)

E Raceme


11. Inflorescence of Ledum palustre has a significantly shortened rachis, connivent nodes, pedicles of the quite similar length. This inflorescence is called:

A * Umbel

B Glomus

C Bostryx

D Spike

E Ament


12. Monopodial inflorescences of plantain (spike) and maize (ear) have one trait in common: their flowers are placed on the well-developed principal axis. This is typical for the following inflorescences:

A.*Simple botrioid (monopodial)

B. Complex botrioid

C. Cymose

D. Aggregate

E. Thyrsoid


13. What structure does the scale of male cone of pine-tree corresponds to?

A *stamen of angiosperm

B spore of fern

C sporangium of fern

D embryonic sack of angiosperms

E fern protallus


14. Flower of Melilotus officinalis has 10 stamens in its structure. One stamen is free, and nine are jointed in a tube. This androecium type is named:

A *diadelphous

B monadelphous

C syngenesious

D didynamous

E threedynamous

15. A sour cherry has shortened principal axis of inflorescence, pedicles have nearly equal length and emerge like from the same point, It is typical for the following type of inflorescence:

A. Ear

B. Truss

C. Umbel

D. Anthodium

* E. Corymb


Krok Questions for fruit structure:


1. During determination of ^ Hypericum perforatum’ fruit type it was found that: the fruit is coebocarpous, dry, opens with valves and contains a big number of seeds. Therefore the fruit of Hypericum perforatum is:

A. Multifollicle

*B. Fruitcase

C. Aggregate achene

D. Follicle

E. Coenobium


2. You need to specify a monocarpous one-seeded fruit with hard scleroid endocarp and soft mesocarp. This fruit is:

A *Drupe

B Legume

C Silique

D Capsule

E Bacca


3. During determination of fruit type Hypericum perforatum it was found that: the fruit is coebocarpous, dry, opens with valves and contains a big number of seeds. Therefore the fruit of ^ Hypericum perforatum is:

A *Fruitcase (Capsule)

B Multifollicle

C Follicle

D Coenobium

E Aggregate achene


4. A fruit under examination is pseudomonocarpic, with woody pericarp and one seed. The seed cuticle remains unfused with the pericarp. Such fruit is called:

A *Nut

B Cremocarp

C Achenocarp

D Caryopsis

E Pseudomonocarpic drupe


5. It is known that a seed without endosperm and perisperm has its nutrients accumulated in:

A *Embryo cotyledons

B Embryo root

C Embryo stalk

D Gemma

E Seed coat


6. Some one-seeded fruit is belonging to nut-like fruits is not ripened at maturity. The base of this fruit is surrounded with a cupped envelope, was formed on the extended axis, which the flower was located on. This is:

A * Acorn

B Nut

C Nutlet

D Samara

E Kernel


7. Fruit appears from bilocular gynoecium. In the process of evolution auxiliary membranes are formed in an ovary, through which 4 nests appear with one seminal rudiment. A mature fruit disintegrates on 4 parts. Choose the described fruit type:

A * coenobium

B cinarodium

C schizocarp

D hesperidium

E kalatchs

8. Choose the fruit type, taking into consideration following characteristics: cenocarpous fruit, mericarps of which have 5 longitudinal main ribs, where the second ribs can be between. Flesh consists of much essential oil in ethers canals:

A * schizocarp

B achene

C nut

D pea

E legume


9. Which fruit type is characterized by juicy flesh, multiseminal, non-ripening, appears with cenocarpous gynoecium:

A * hesperidium

B legume

C achenecelum

D cynarodium

E coenobium


10. One of fleshy fruits under examination is characterized by essential oil exocarp, spongy mesocarp and overgrown endocarp consisting of juice sacs. What fruit was examined?

A. Cinarodium

B. Pepo

*C. Hesperidium

D. Bacca

E.Drupe


^ Krok Questions for lower plants systematic:


1. A plant under examination has a rhizome, big pinnatisected leaves with sori and sporangia on their undersurface. According to this data the plant should be related to one of the following divisions:

A *Polypodiophyta (Fern)

B Pinophyta

C Magnoliophyta

D Eguisetophyta

E Lycopodiophyta


2. Sphagnum’s ability to quick suction and its possibility to store much water is caused by:

A * it’s having of special aquiferous cells

B by water habitat

C by the presence of roots

D by absence of transpiration

E by the dense layer of cuticle on the leaves surface

3. What part of the bryophytes’ body does correspond with fern sporangium?

A * capsule

B sporogone

C anteridia

D arhegonium

E protoneme

4. Plant without the true vascular bundles, with phylloids and rhizoids, with gametophyte prevalence in the lifecycle belongs to the division:

A *Bryophyta

B Lycopodiophyta

C Equisetophyta

D Polipodiophyta

E Gymnospermae

5. It is noted in description of raw material for antibiotic binan production, this material is taken from the genus Cladonia members, which belong to…

A *lichens

B seaweed

C mushrooms

D bryophytes

E ferns

6. Pharmacist did not accept the raw material of horsetail (Equisetum arvence) from a supplier, although this material was very resembling on outwardly he very looked like a horse-tail the field, however there were sporogenousears on vegetative escapes of horse-tail. This could be

A * marsh horsetail (Equisetum palustre)

B woodland horsetail (^ Equisetum sylvaticum)

C scouringrush horsetail (Equisetum hyemale)

D giant horsetail (Equisetum telmateia)

E Selaginella

7. At the analysis of plant parts, pieces of rhizomes were found. Their microscopic analysis on a cross-section revealed centroxylem vascular bundles. Their presence can be evidence of sample belonging to…

A *Ferns

B Monocots

C Dicots

D Conifers (Gymnosperms)

E Seaweed

8. Studying the karyotype of green shoots of some plant it was determined plant has haploid set of chromosomes. There could be members of…

A *Bryophyta

B Lycopodiophyta

C Equisetîphyta

D Polypodiophyta

E Pinophyta

9. Spores of tetraedric shape with half-spheroid basis and reticulated surface were found among pollen grains during the pollen-spore analysis. These spores can belong to…

A *Lycopodiophyta

B Equisetiphyta

C Bryophyta

D Polypodiophyta

E Pinophyta

10. For malignant tumors’ treatment fungus chaga is used. It belongs to the class…

A *Basidiomicota

B Zygomicota

C Powdery mildews (Eryspales)

D Deuteromicota

E Ascomycota

11. For Practical lesson on the “Polypodiophyta” theme it was necessary to take the herbarium sample of following plant:

A *Ostrich fern, floating watermoss (floating fern).

B Marschantia, Common Haircap Moss (Common Hair Moss, or Great Goldilocks

C Common Club Moss, selaginela

D Ginkgo biloba

E Horsetail wintering

12. Common Haircap Moss has capsule is composed on vaginula and calyptra (cap) with an acute apex. There is the raw of shallow teeth on the edge of vaginula’ apex. This raw is named peristome. Teeth of peristome have a hygroscopicity which provides:

A * The fall of spores occurs at dry weather only

B The fall of spores occurs at moist weather only

C Spores’ protection from temperature fluctuations

D Distribution of spores with insects

E Fall of spores at any weather

13. The cycle of bryophytes development has some features. Indicate the sporophyte structure:

A * Seta and capsule

B Heart-shaped green plate

C Protoneme

D Stem with leaves

E Capsule

14. Two multinuclear, as a rule, hametangia are fused in zygomycota at sexual reproduction. They are separated from mycelium, which they appear on, by septae. Haploid nucleuses from different hametangia are fused together forming zygosporangia. Specify a fungus this process is peculiar to:

A * Mucor

B Penicilum

C Aspergilum

D Smuts

E Larix sponge

15. One kind of green algae spores has flagella using of which spores are able to float on water for some time. Name this type of spores:

A * Zoospores

B Spermatozoa

C Conidia

D Microspores

E Aplanospores

16. The higher spore plants were the first terrestrial plants on the Earth. In asexual reproduction they produces spores. It is one of the adaptation to the land-living. Where do spores at the Field horsetail appear?

A * On the apexes of springs brown shoots

B On the upside of sheets in soruses

C On the lower side of sheets in soruses

D On the apexes of summers green shoots

E At the internodes of leaves

17. Fungi Kingdom includes about 100 of thousand uni- and multicellular organisms which are heterotrophes. Which Class of Fungi Kingdom do species of Penicillium genus, which are used in medical practice for antibiotics manufacturing, belong to?

A *Deuteromycetes

B Ascomycetes

C Oomycetes

D Zygomycetes

E Basidiomycetes

18. Plant Kingdom includes variety of groups of eukaryotic organisms, which have the same trait - capacity for photosynthesis; there are gametophyte and sporophyte generations in the lifecycle. For plants of which Division gametophyte is dominate over sporophyte?

A *Bryophyta

B Magnoliophyta

C Pynophyta

D Lycopodiophyta

E Polypodiophyta

19. The higher spore plants have ability to form spores during the asexual reproduction. It is one of the adaptations to the terrestrial mean of life. Which set of chromosomes do spores have?

A *Haploid

B Diploid

C Triploid

D Tetraploid

E Polyploid

20. Structure of lined gills is observed using the example of poisonous cap mushroom of Basidiomicota class –

A * fly-agaric (Amanita muscaria)

B champignon

C chaga

D ergot

E tinder

21. From the trunk of Betula penduta the sterile form of xylotroph (parasite) Inonotus obliquus is dissociated, it is birch mushroom or ...

A * shelf mushroom

B fly-agaric

C ergot

D champignon

E true tinder

22. It is determined that body of brown seaweed (alga) analyzed is growing…

A * dichotomically

B monopodially

C sympodially

D false dichotomically

E in column

23. A macroscopic alga of brown colour with trunk, rhizoids and foliaceous part rich in algi­nates and iodine is ranked with genus of:

*A. Laminaria

B. Chiarella

C.Ulolhrix

D. Chlamydomonas

E. Spirogira

24. A plant under examination has a rhizome, big pinnatisected leaves with sori and sporangia on their undersurface. According to this data the plant should be related to one of the following divisions:

A. Eguisetophyta

B. Lycopodiophyta

C. AI agnoliophyta

D. Pinophyta

* E. Polypodiophyta


25. A higher nonvascular plant has distinct alternation of dominant sexual (gametophyte) and reduced asexual (sporophyte) generations. This indicates that the plant belongs to the following division:

A *Bryophyta

B Lycopsida

C Equisetophyta

D Pteridophyta

E Gymnospermae


26. A big brown alga has a stipe, rhizoids and laminae rich in alginates and iodine. It belongs to the following genus:

A *Laminaria

B Chlorella

C Chlamydomonas

D Spirogira

E Ulothrix


27. Spore and pollen analysis revealed in the pollen some tetrahedral spores with a semi-circular base and a reticular surface, which may belong to:

A *Lycopodiophyta

B Equisetiphyta

C Bryophyta

D Polypodiophyta

E Pinophyta


Krok Questions on systematic:


1. One of the common characteristics of subfamily Prunоіdеa representatives (family Rosaсеае) is that their fruit is:

A *Drupe (stone fruit)

B Aggregate-accessory fruit

C Bacca

D Pome

E Pepo


2. In the practice of harvesting herbal raw material of Asteraceae family the term "flowers" means both individual flowers and inflorescences. However, the notion of "flowers" is botanically correct only for:

A *Centaurea cyanus

B Gnaphalium uliginosum

C Arnica montana

D Echinops ritro

E Bidens tripartita


3. A perennial herbaceous plant has ascending quadrangular stem and oppositely arranged leaves. The flowers with bilabiate corolla are zygomorphic, bisexual, arranged in whorls in the leaf axils. The fruit type is coenobium. The described medicinal plant relates to the following botanic family:

A *Lamiaceae

B Asteraceae

C Poaceae

D Brassicaceae

E Rosaceae


4. An essential oil plant under examination has a square stem, flowers with bilabiate corolla, coenobium fruit. These characteristics are typical for the following family:

A *Lamiaceae

B Papaveraceae

C Polygonaceae

D Solanaceae

E Scrophulariaceae


5. An annual plant of the Asteraceae family has tripartite leaves, apical anthodia with tubular flowers, flat achenocarps that are tenent due to 2-3 bristly serratures. This plant is:

A *Bidens tripartita

B Chamomilia recutita

C Centaurea cyanus

D Echinacea purpurea

E Artemisia vulgaris


6. Crop production includes cultivation of medicinal essential oil plants that don't grow in Ukraine wildely, namely Mentha piperita, (Ortosiphon stamineus) and also:

A *Salvia officinalis

B Origanum vulgare

C Leonurus cardiaca

D Thymus serpyllum

E Leonurus quinquelobatus


7. Essential oil glandules consisting of 8 secretory cells arranged in two rows and four tiers can be be found in most plants of the following family:

A *Asteraceae

B Apiaceae

C Lamiaceae

D Rosaceae

E Scrophulariaceae


8. Examination of five herbarium specimens of medicinal plants showed that one of them belonged to the legume family, namely:

A *Glycyrhiza glabra

B Atropa belladonna

C Hyoscyamus niger

D Datura stramonium

E Solanum dulcamara


9. Bacca (Berry) fruit is typical for the following representative of Solanaceae family:

A *Atropa belladonna

B Hyoscyamus niger

C Datura stramonium

D Nicotiana tabacum

E Datura innoxia


10. One of the plants under examination has a zygomorphic flower and papilionaceous corolla. This plant is called:

A *Melilotus officinalis

B Mentha piperita

C Valeriana officinalis

D Urtica dioica

E Rosa canina


11. A medicinal herb under examination has the capsule fruit with lacticifers and small openings. This herb is called:

A *Papaver somniferum

B Chelidonium majus

C Zea mays

D Mentha piperita

E Sanquisorba officinalis


12. A leaf has glumaceous ochrea. It clasps bottom of internode and is a modificated stipule. This is diagnostic sign of the following family:

A *Polygonaceae

B Gramineae

C Rosaceae

D Legumes

E Solanaceae


13. One of the herbarium specimens of medicinal plants relates to the Asteraceae family. This plant is:

A *Arctica lappa

B Atropa belladonna

C Cassia acutifolia

D Urtica dioica

E Rubus idaeus


14. Choose a plant whose apical sprouts are used in medical practice for sedative drug production:

A *Leonurus cardiaca

B Glycyrrhiza glabra

C Digitalis purpurea

D Ledum palustre

E Fagopyrum sagittatum


15. The analyzed plant has hollow ribbed stems, compound umbel inflorescence, schizocarpic fruit (cremocarp) and is rich in essential oils, which is a characteristic of:

A *Apiaceae

B Fabaceae

C Ericaceae

D Brassisaceae

E Asteraceae


16. Calendula officinalis which a representative of the aster family is characterized by the following inflorescence type:

A *Flowerhead (Anthodium, Capitilum)

B Umbel

C Catkin

D Glome

E Cyme


17. Which medicinal plant of the Asteraceae family has only disk flowers in the flowerhead?

A *Three-part beggarticks (Bidens tripartita)

B Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)

C Echinacea purpurea

D Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)

E Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium)


18. Prevailing plants of a foliage forest are monoecious high trees coated with thick dark-grey rind with deep cracks. Their leaves are short-petiolar, pinnatilobate. Their fruit is acorn. Therefore, the dominating species is:

A *Quercus robur

B Robinia pseudoacacia

C Aesculus hippocastanum

D Tilia cordata

E Betula verrucosa


19. An essential oil plant under examination has tetraquetrous stalk, flowers with bilabiate corolla, coenobium fruit. These characteristics are typical for the following family:

A *Lamiaceae

B Papaveraceae

C Polygonaceae

D Solanaceae

E Scrophulariaceae


20. A plant under examination has a storage root; its stems are ribbed and channelled, hollow; leaves are many times pinnatisected, leafstalk has a boot; inflorescence is the compound umbel; fruit is the cremocarp with essential oil canaliculi in the pericarp. Such characteristics are typical for the plants of the following family:

A *Apiaceae

B Solanaceae

C Fabaceae

D Brassicaceae

E Scrophulariaceae


21. During identification of a perennial herb of Ranunculaceaе family it was found to have: apical flowers of regular form up to 6 cm in diameter; 5 downy violet-and-green calyx lobes of irregular serrate form; up to 20 bright yellow glossy petals without nectarostigma. What plant is it?

A *Аdonis vernalis

B Helleborus purpurascens

C Ranunculus acris

D Delphinium elatum

E Aconitum napellus


22. A herbaceous plant under examination has segmented lacticifers with anastomoses filled with white latex. This is typical for:

A *Taraxacum officinale

B Urtica dioica

C Chelidonium majus

D Anethum graveolens

E Thymus vulgaris


23. Which of the following plants has pome fruit?

A *Sorbus aucuparia

B Prunus domestica L.

C Amygdalus communis

D Rosa majalis

E Prunus padus


24. At preparation of medicinal raw materials, the attention has been paid on plant has compound leaves, butterfly-shaped flowers; a fruit is bean (legume). Therefore, this plant belongs to family...

A *Fabaceae

B Scrophulariaceae

C Ranunculaceae

D Lamiaceae

E Asteraceae

25. At the morphological description of leaf, it was established the plant is belonging to Heath Family (Ericaceae). Leaves have short petioles, denticulate edge, they are light green in colour, thin and smooth. This plant is...

A *Vaccinium myrtillus

B Vaccinium oxycoccus

C Vaccinium vitis-idaea

D Ledum palustre

E Arctostaphylos uva-ursi


26. At the morphological description of a fruit-tree belonging to Rosaceae family was established this tree has the truncated prickly shoots: apple-like fruit contains stony cells. It is…

A * Common peach

B Forest apple

C Garden cherry

D Usual apricot

E Prickly plum


27. Herbarium sample of a poisonous plant with an unpleasant mouse smell was collected. On a stalk and petioles, there are red-violet stains. It is...

A *Conium maculatum

B Anisum vulgare

C Apium graveolens

D Anethum graveolens

E Foeniculum vulgare


28. At diagnostics of a Rosaceae family fruits the attention is paid to a stone-fruit (drupe) which is characteristic for subfamily…

A *Prunoideae

B Rosoideae

C Maloideae

D Mimosoideae

E Spiraeoideae


29. Among herbarium plants of Rosaceae family are taken into consideration fruit hipantium has .

A *Rosa canina

B Fragaria vesca

C Potentilla erecta

D Rubus idaeus

E Pyrus communis


30. While analysing herbarium sample of a plant from Rhamnaceae family was defined that a plant has no prickles, leaves are alternate, they have plumose venation with 6-8 pairs of direct lateral veins. This plant is…

A *Rhamnus frangula

B Rhamnus cathartica

C Padus racemosa

D Aronia melanocarpa

E Sambucus nigrum


31. The leaf of the plant is examined has a membranous or hyaline bell-shaped structure united the stipules. The presence of such modified stipules is the diagnostic feature of following family:

A *Polygonaceae (knotweed family or smart weed family)

B Poaceae (Cereals)

C Rosaceae (Rose)

D Fabaceae (Legume family)

E Solanaceae (Nightshade)


32. The plant is examined has a rhizome, springs nongreen, sporogenous shoots. This is...

A *Equisetum arvense

B Polythrichum commune

C Dryopteris filix mas

D Lycopodium clavatum

E Ephedra distachya


33. Herbaceous perennial plants have shortened rhizome. Leaves form a rosette near root; the flower-carrying shoots are furrowed and have thick extended spike-like inflorescence on the end. A fruit is a capsule. These are traits of family...

A *Plantaginaceae

B Scrophulariaceae

C Boraginaceae

D Apocynaceae

E Rubiaceae


34. Plant of Scrophulariaceae family is perennial, herbaceous, it has creeping stem with trichomes. Leaves have short petioles, obovate. Flowers are zygomorph, blue-violet, are forming strike brushes. A fruit is a capsule. This is...

A *Veronica officinalis

B Verbascum flomoides

C Linaria vulgaris

D Digitalis purpurea

E Digitalis grandiflora


35. Which plant among listed below belongs to the Berberidaceae family?

A *Podophyllum peltatum

B Adonis vernalis

C Chelidonium majus

D Saponaria officinalis

E Hypericum perforatum


36. There are herbaceous perennial plant having branched rhizome with a few erect branchy dihedral oppositely growing stems. On leaves of this plant there are spotted glands. Flowers are golden-yellow. Inflorescence is a corymb. A fruit is a capsule. This the St-john's-wort (Hipericum perforatum). What family does this plant belong to?

A *Clusiaceae

B Brassicaceae

C Ericaceae

D Primulaceae

E Euphorbiaceae


37. Define the medical plant belonging to Rosaceae family. Rhizome is thick, woody; stem in erect, 20-100 cm in height. Leaves near the root are petioled, compound odd-pinnate; consisting of 7-25 long-ovate leaflets. Stem leaves are small, rare. Inflorescence is an ear on a long peduncule, darkly-purple. A fruit is a nut.

A *^ Sanguisorba officinalis (Great Burnet)

B Potentilla erecta, (Erect cinquefoil, tormentil)

C Fragaria vesca (wild strawberries)
  1   2

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