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CLOSE BOX CuInSe2 FILM DEPOSITION TECHNOLOGY
N. M. Kharchenko, G. S. Khrypunov,
National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, firstname.lastname@example.org
Traditionally high-performance thin film solar cells (SC on the base of CuInSe2 (CIS) is made by thermal vacuum evaporation method on glass substrates at substrate temperatures above 500oС. Such high temperatures ensure intensive interphase interaction of the components in the open vacuum and obtaining of CIS layers characterized by optimal photoelectrical properties. Temperatures of indium and copper evaporators exceed 1000оС that additionally enhances energy consumption of the technological process. Therefore it is necessary to use low material consumption and energy saving technologies for creation of economical SСs on CIS base.
With the aim to apply the close box deposition technique for the preparation of CIS thin films as base layer for the solar cells the investigation of the mechanisms of binary intermediate compounds of Cu-Se and In-Se systems formation and of their transformation into CIS were carried out. The first stage of these investigations had shown that reaction of elemental Cu with Se–vapor in close box deposition chamber begins as formation of Cu2Se phase and continue up to the total utilization of elemental Cu. The temperature of Se–source is within the range 330-350oC. Only after Cu2Se phase creation the formation of more Se enriched phase starts in Se atmosphere. The rate of this reaction is less than rate of Cu2Se formation. The film saturation by selenium is realized through chemisorption. Reaction kinetics is limited by selenium saturation of the film surface and by selenium diffusion into the film. At substrate temperatures below 320 оС the structures with variable compositions across films are formed. For the preparation of In2Se3 films in the close box deposition chamber In–source temperature was reduced to 400-580oC, the Se-source temperature was 400-470oC and the substrate temperature decreased to 350-400oC. The process of In2Se3 film formation was multi-step one. On the first stage of this process the formation of some In-Se compounds on the In-grain surface took place. The following stage consisted in the evaporation and condensation of these compounds in order to create In2Se3. The subsequent annealing of Cu2Se and In2Se3 films in Se–vapor results in formation of compound CuInSe2.
1.The film deposition is fulfilled on conditions same to thermodynamic equilibrium that allow to obtain polycrystalline CIS films with perfect crystalline structure.
2. The design of Se-crucible allows varying Se pressure in the chamber within large interval.
3. It was created material - and energy saving technology of CIS base layers.
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