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Optical disk -CD-ROM
Dedicated fax machines
3. Picture Phones and Better Sending & Receiving Devices (Cellular Phones).
Text IV. Better Sending & Receiving Devices
4. Crimes Against Computers & Communications
Theft of time and services
5. Worms and Viruses.
Texts for translating
Text IV. Secondary Storage Hardware
Main memory (primary storage) is internal storage. It works with the CPU chip on the motherboard to hold data and programs for immediate processing.
Secondary storage, by contrast, is external storage. It is not on the motherboard (although it may still be inside the system cabinet). Secondary storage consists of devices that store data and programs permanently on disk or tape.
You may hear people use the term "storage media refers to the material that stores data, such as diskette or magnetic tape. For microcomputers the principal storage media are the diskette (floppy disk), hard disk, magnetic tape, and CD-ROM.
Hard disk I: Diskettes are made out of tape-like material, which is what makes them "floppy." They are also removable. By contrast, a hard disk is a disk made out of metal and covered with a magnetic recording surface. It also holds data represented by the presence (1) and absence (0) of magnetized spots.
Hard-disk drives read and write data in much the same way that diskette drives do. However, there are three significant differences. First, hard-disk drives can handle thousands of times more data than diskettes do. Second, hard-disk drives are usually built into the system cabinet, in which case they are not removable. Third, hard disks read and write data faster than diskettes do.
^ Moviemakers used to love to represent computers with banks of spinning reels of magnetic tape. Indeed, with early computers, "mag tape" was the principal method of secondary storage.
The magnetic tape used for computers is made from the same material as that used for audiotape and videotape. That is, magnetic tape is made of flexible plastic coated on one side with a magnetic material; again, data is represented by the presence and absence of magnetized spots. Because of its drawbacks, nowadays tape is used mainly to provide low-cost duplicate storage, especially for microcomputers. A tape that is a duplicate or copy of another form of storage is referred to as a backup.
Because hard disks sometimes fail ("crash"), personal computer users who don't wish to do backup using a lot of diskettes will use magnetic tape instead.
^ If you have been using music CDs (compact disks), you are already familiar with optical disks. An optical disk is a disk that is written and read by lasers. CD-ROM, which stands for Compact Disk—Read Only Memory, is one kind of optical-disk format that is used to hold text, graphics, and sound.
Secondary Storage Hardware – технічні засоби зовнішньої пам'яті
internal – внутрішній
motherboard – материнська плата
permanently – постійно
storage media – ділянка пам’яті
floppy disk – гнучкий диск
removable – здатний пересуватися
flexible – гнучкий
spot – місце, пляма, сектор
surface – поверхня
rigid – жорсткий
disk drive – дисковод
to spin – намотувати
separate – окремий
spinning reel – бобіна
drawback – завада, перешкода
backup – дублювання
Text VI. Fax Machines
Fax stands for "facsimile," which means "a copy;" more specifically, fax stands for "facsimile transmission." A fax machine scans an image and sends a copy of it in the form of electronic signals over transmission lines to a receiving fax machine. The receiving machine recreates the image on paper. Fax messages may also be sent to and from microcomputers.
Fax machines have been commonplace in offices and even many homes for some time, and new uses have been found for them. For example, some newspapers offer facsimile editions, which are transmitted daily to subscribers' fax machines.
There are two types of fax machines—dedicated fax machines and fax modems:
• ^ The type we generally call "fax machines," dedicated fax machines are specialized devices that do nothing except send and receive fax documents. They are found not only in offices and homes but also alongside regular phones in public places such as airports.
For the status-conscious or those trying to work from their cars during a long commute, fax machines can be installed in an automobile. The movie The Player, for example, contains a scene in which the stalker of a movie-studio executive faxes a threatening note. It arrives through the fax machine housed beneath the dashboard in the executive's Range Rover.
• ^ A fax modem is installed as a circuit board inside the computer's system cabinet. It is a modem with fax capability that enables you to send signals directly from your computer to someone else's fax machine or computer fax modem.
With this device, you don't have to print out the material from your printer and then turn around and run it through the scanner on a fax machine. The fax modem allows you to send information much more quickly than if you had to feed it page by page into a machine.
The fax modem is another feature of mobile computing, although it's more powerful as a receiving device. Fax modems are installed inside portable computers, including pocket PCs and PDAs. You can also link up a cellular phone to the fax modem in your portable computer and thereby receive wireless fax messages. Indeed, faxes may be sent and received all over the world.
The main disadvantage of a fax modem is that you cannot scan in outside documents. Thus, if you have a photo or a drawing that you want to fax to someone, you need an image scanner, as we describe next.
By now, communication by fax has become cheaper than first-class mail for many purposes.
excitement – збудження
to divide – розподіляти
grid – сітка, решітка
cell – сота
to be accessed – бути доступним
effect – вплив
forerunner – провісник
to enable – давати можливість
facsimile – факсимільна інформація
line – лінія
headline – заголовок
satellite – супутник
resort – курорт
Text XI. Picture Phones
The picture phone is a telephone with a TV-like screen and a built-in camera that allow you to see the person you're calling, and vice versa. The idea of the picture phone has been around since 1964, when AT&T showed its Picturephone at the New York World's Fair. However, the main difficulty is that the standard copper wire in what the industry calls POTS—for "plain old telephone service"—has been unable to transmit images rapidly. Thus, present-day picture phones convey a series of jerky, freeze-frame or stop-action still images of the faces of the communicating parties. However, ISDN lines and fiber-optic cables, rapidly being installed in many places, can better transmit visual information. Moreover, new software can compress images quickly, delivering video as well as audio images in real time even over old-fashioned copper wires.
With the signing into law of the 1996 Telecommunications Act, which permits more competition in telephone service, we will probably see a real free-for-all in the phone business, which could speed up the delivery of picture phones. Already the telcom (telephone companies) are getting competition from unexpected quarters. Many cable companies are jumping into the phone business. Technology such as CU-SeeMe software, developed at Cornell University in 1994, is allowing video/voice communication on the Internet.
Cellular phones: Cellular telephones use a system that divides a geographical service area into a grid of "cells." In each cell, low-powered, portable, wireless phones can be accessed and connected to the main (wire) telephone network.
The significance of the wireless, portable phone is not just that it allows people to make calls from their cars. Most important is its effect on worldwide communications. Countries with underdeveloped wired telephone systems, for instance, can use cellular phones as a fast way to install better communications. Such technology gives these nations—Mexico, Thailand, Pakistan, Hungary, and others— a chance to join the world economy.
Today's cellular phones are also the forerunners of something even more revolutionary—pocket phones. Cigarette-pack-size portable phones and more fully developed satellite systems will enable people to have conversations or exchange information from anywhere on earth.
Text IV. Crimes Against Computers & Communications
Crimes against technology include theft—of hardware, of software, of computer time, of cable or telephone services, of information.
• Theft of hardware: Stealing of hardware can range from shoplifting an accessory in a computer store to removing a laptop or cellular phone from someone's car. Professional criminals may steal shipments of microprocessor chips off a loading dock or even pry cash machines out of shopping-center walls.
• Theft of software: Stealing software can take the form of physically making off with someone's diskettes, but it is more likely to be copying of programs. Software makers secretly prowl electronic bulletin boards in search of purloined products, then try to get a court order to shut down the bulletin boards. They also look for companies that "softlift"—buying one copy of a program and making copies for as many computers as they have.
Another type of software theft involves selling copies or counterfeits of well-known software programs. In some countries, more than 90% of U.S. microcomputer software in use is thought to be illegally copied.
• ^ The theft of computer time is more common than you might think. Probably the biggest use of it is people using their employer's computer time to play games. Some people also may run sideline businesses.
Theft of cable and telephone services has increased over the years. Recently, thieves have been able to crack the codes of the fast-growing digital satellite industry, using illegal decoders.
• Theft of information: "Information thieves" have been caught infiltrating the flies of the Social Security Administration, stealing confidential personal records and selling the information. Thieves have also broken into computers of the major credit bureaus and have stolen credit information. They have then used the information to charge purchases or have resold it to other people. On college campuses, thieves have snooped on or stolen private information such as grades.
The makers of huge sums of illicit profits, such as drug traffickers, are also going high-tech, doing their money laundering by using home-banking software, for example, to zip money across borders. Authorities fear that the rise of cyber cash—for instance, use of smart cards containing memory chips that can be filled or emptied with the equivalent of cash—will turn money laundering into a financial crime that will be harder than ever to track.
accomplish – виконувати
illegal act – незаконна дія
to steal – викрасти
stealing – викрадення
accessory – приладдя, додатковий
remove – пересувати
removing – пересування
shipment – навантаження, вантаж
loading dock – вантажний док
pry – підглядати
painstaking – старанний
devastate – спустошити, знищувати
devastated – знищений
recover – відновити
loan – борг
larceny – крадіжка
campus – шкільний двір
prowl – скитатися, тинятися
purloin – вкрасти
purloined – вкрадений
“softlift”– “легкий на підйом”
toll-free – безмитний
indict – пред’явити обвинувачення
allegedly – без підстав
to encourage – підбадьорити, заохочувати
counterfeit – підробка, підроблений
sideline – побічна робота
face up to – затримати на
fine – штраф
to tap – попадати, проникати
to charge purchase – призначати купівлю
grade – градус
illicit – заборонений (законом)
drug trafficker – торгівель ник наркотиками
money laundering – відмивання грошей
to zip – пересилати
to track – простежувати
drug kingpin – наркотична важлива персона
abuse, abusing – зловживання
vandalizing – вандалізм
deliberately – умисно
repeatedly – постійно
sentence to – присуджувати до
probation – іспитовий термін
trick – фокус, обман, спритність
wreaking – надання свободи
havoc – спустошення
Text VI. Worms & Viruses
Worms and viruses are forms of high-tech maliciousness. A worm is a program that copies itself repeatedly into memory or onto a disk drive until no more space is left. An example is the worm program unleashed by a student at Cornell University that traveled through an e-mail network and shut down thousands of computers around the country.
A virus is a "deviant" program that attaches itself to computer systems and destroys or corrupts data. Viruses are passed in two ways:
The virus usually attaches itself to your hard disk. It might then display annoying messages ("Your PC is stoned—legalize marijuana") or cause Ping-Pong balls to bounce around your screen and knock away text. More seriously, it might add garbage to or erase your files or destroy your system software. It may evade your detection and create havoc elsewhere.
Viruses take several forms, the two traditional ones being boot-sector viruses and file viruses. One recent type is the macro virus. There have been many strains of viruses in recent years, some of them quite well known (Stoned, Jerusalem B, Lehigh, Pakistani Brain, Michelangelo). Some 6000 viruses have been identified, but only a few hundred of them have been found "in the wild," or in general circulation. Although most are benign, some are intended to be destructive. Some virus writers do it for the intellectual challenge or to relieve boredom, but others do it for revenge, typically against an employer. One virus writer calling himself Hellraiser, who in his pre-computer youth used to roam New York City streets with a can of spray paint, says that "Viruses are the electronic form of graffiti."
The fastest-growing virus in history, many experts say, is the Word Concept virus (or simply Concept virus), which worries people because it sneaks past security devices by hitching rides on e-mail and other common Internet files. Concept attaches itself to documents created by Microsoft's popular word processing program, Word 6.0 or higher. A virus called Boza, though not easily spread, specifically s programs on the Windows 95 operating system, corrupting them so they can no longer function.
A variety of virus-fighting programs are available at stores, although you should be sure to specify the viruses you want to protect against. Antivirus software scans a computer's hard disk, diskettes, and main memory to detect viruses and, sometimes, to destroy them.
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