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ЗмістTheme 9 Blood circulation disorders: plethora, ischemia, infarction, hemorrhage, bleeding, stasis, plasmorrhagia. Embolism. Shoc
Practical class 6-7
Ion-osmotic and water balance disturbance
Stasis Stasis (from Latin stasis – arrest) – blood circulation arrest in microcirculation channel vessels, mainly in capillaries
Extravasations are accumulation of blood run out from vessels in tissues.
The causes of blood outgo from blood circulatory system are as follows
Disseminated intravascular clotting (DIC) syndrome
Lymph flow disorders
II Algorithm of the practical part of the class
Cyanotic induration of kidney
Attached to the wall (nonobturative) mixed thrombus of aorta at atherosclerosis a blood clot partly fills clearance of aorta
Obturative red thrombi in the regions of aorta’s bifurcation. Thrombus-rider
Haemorrhage in a cerebrum
Metastases of cancer to the liver
Venous plethora of liver. Nutmeg liver
Organized thrombus with phenomena of recanalisation and revasculation
Notional module 2
Morphology of blood supply and limphokinesis disturbance
Lectures – 4 hours
Practical classes – 8 hours
Student’s self-work – 7 hours
Form of student’s individual self-work – thesis or library-research papers
Specific objects of the module
Disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome.
Theme 8 Ion-osmotic and water balance disturbances
Basic matters for self-training
Ion-osmotic and water balance disturbances The causes, pathogenesis of hyposmolar and hypersmolar comas, their consequences and patients’ death causes. Hyper- and hypopotassemia: definition, causes of development, role in thanatogenesis. Water balance disturbance, hypo- and hyperpotassemia: causes of development, role of intercellular and cellular dehydration in thanatogenesis. Transsudate, cavities hydrops, viscus edema (lungs, cerebrum): patho- and morphogenesis, clinicopathologic characteristics.
Renin-angiotension-aldosteron system. Life incompatible blood pH disturbance: definition, role in thanatogenesis. Osmotic pressure, oncotic pressure: characteristics, regulation. Potassiou metabolism disturbance. Hypopotassemia, hyperpotassemia: mechanisms of development, clinical manifestations.
Basic matters for self-training
Plethora (plethora). Arterial plethora. Causes, types, morphology. Venous plethora: general and local, acute and chronic. Venous (passive) congestion in small circle of blood circulation system: patho- and morphogenesis, clinicopathologic characteristics, consequences. Blood circulation disorders under chronic myocardium cardiac decompensation. Heart and lungs disorders pathomorphology under chronic right ventricle and left ventricle cardiac insufficiency (cardiac decompensation). Venous plethora in portal vein system (portal hypertension): pathogenesis and clinicopathologic manifestations.
Ischemia (ischemia): definition, causes, mechanisms of development, morphologic characteristic and methods of diagnostics, clinical meaning. Collateral blood circulation role. Acute and chronic ischemia. Infarction: definition, causes, classification, morphologic characteristic of various kinds of infarctions, complications, consequences.
Hemorrhage: external and internal, bleeding. causes, kinds, clinicopathologic characteristics. Hemorrhagic diathesis. Stasis: causes, mechanism of development, kinds, clinicopathologic characteristics, consequences. Pre-stasis, slagging phenomenon. Bleeding. Plasmorrhagia: causes, mechanism of development, kinds, morphologic characteristics, consequences causes. Lymph flow disturbance. Lymph flow insufficiency. Causes, kinds, morphologic manifestations. Lymphedema – acute and chronic, general and regional. Lymphostasis, elephantiasis. Lymphorrhea – external and internal (chylous ascites, chylothorax ). Importance of lymph flow disorders.
Shock: definition, causes, pathogenesis and stages of development, pathologic anatomy manifestations of acute disorders of blood circulation and their consequences with patients died of shock. Postischemic-reperfusion organs injuries: causes, pathogenesis, clinicopathoanatomic features and their consequences.
Embolism: definition, kinds, causes, morphologic characteristics. Orthograde, retrograde and paradoxical embolism. Thrombo embolism: causes of development, clinical significance. Pulmonary artery thrombo embolism, acute cor pulmonale. Thrombo embolism syndrome: clinicopathologic characteristic.
Theme 10 Hemostasis disorders. Thrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome
Basic matters for self-training
Idea of hemostasis system structural-functional components. Pathogenetic classification of hemostatic disorders.
Hemorrhagic syndromes: definition, basic causes, principal pathogenetic kinds, pathoanatomic manifestations, consequences.
Thrombosis. Internal and external systems of coagulation. Fibrinolysis. Cells and factors participating in coagulation and fibrinolysis. Thrombocyte aggregate formation. Concept of coagulation cascade. Local and general factors of thrombus formation. Thrombus, its types, morphologic characteristic. Venous thrombosis. Arterial thrombosis. Thrombosis in cardiac cavities. Varicose veins. Thrombophlebitis and phlebothrombosis. Thrombosis significance and consequences. Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. Definition, kinds, mechanisms of development, stages, morphologic characteristic, clinical manifestations.
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