Content module 3 Immunopathologic processes icon

Content module 3 Immunopathologic processes




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НазваContent module 3 Immunopathologic processes
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Content module 3

Immunopathologic processes


Specific aims of module:

  • To explain structural organization of immune system and immune system central and peripheral organs’ functioning mechanisms.

  • To analyze morpho-functional changes of thymus gland under its inherited or acquired pathology.

  • To explain mechanisms of immune answer to antigen action.

  • To interpret cell immunity mechanisms.

  • To interpret immune immunity mechanisms.

  • To interpret mechanisms of development and morphologic changes under hypersensitivity reaction.

  • To explain autoimmunization mechanisms.

  • To analyze clinical-pathologic manifestations of autoimmune diseases.

  • To explain mechanisms of development and morphologic characteristic of primary and secondary immune inefficiency.

  • To interpret morphologic manifestations of primary and secondary immune deficiency.

  • To interpret morphologic manifestations of graft rejection reactions, graft-versus-host disease, reactions on incompatible blood transfusion.


Theme 11 Immune system pathomorphology.

^ Hypersensitivity reactions and mechanisms


Basic matters for self-training:

Structural-functional organization of immune system: idea of immunocytes and their functions, central and peripheral organs of nervous system structure and functioning.

Thymus (thymus gland) in norm: embryogenesis, morpho-functional characteristics. Thymus diseases. Idea of thymus hyperplasia, thymitis. Thymus changes under immunogenesis failure. Age and accidental involution (transformation). Congenital diseases of thymus: hypoplasia, dysplasia, thymomegalia.

Organism’s immune response on antigen action: types and phases of normal immune response. Immunological tolerance: biological significance, mechanisms, factors influencing tolerance induction.

Cellular grounds of immune response. Primary lymphoid organs: thymus, bone marrow. Cells participating in immune response (nomenclature, morphology, functions). Secondary lymphoid organs: lymph glands,spleen, lymphadenoids in mucus tunics. Morphological characteristics, functions. Antigens, ways of their coming to organism. Tissue-specific antigens.

Humoral immunity. Antibody: structure, classes, physical and biological features of immunoglobulin. Regulation of antibodies’ generation. Primary and secondary immune response.

Cell-bound immunity. Т- lymphocytes (memory cells): functions, subdivisions, classes. Antigen recognition, T-lymphocytes activation, cytotoxic T-cells.

Immunological hyperresponsiveness: definition, classification. Pathogenesis and morphologic characteristic of immediate-type reaction. Pathogenesis and morphologic characteristic of antibody-mediated hyperresponsiveness (destructive and cytokinetic reactions). Pathogenesis and morphologic characteristic of immunocoplex hyperresponsiveness. Pathogenesis and morphologic characteristic of delayed hyperresponsiveness.


^ Theme 12 Autoimmune diseases.

Immunodeficiency states


Basic matters for self-training:

Autoimmune diseases: definition, autoimmunization mechanisms, classification and general clinical-morphological characteristics.

Immunodeficiency: definition, mechanisms of development, general clinical-morphological characteristics of primary and secondary immunodeficiency.

Amyloidosis: structure, physicochemical properties, methods of amyloidosis diagnosis, theories of etiology and pathogenesis, principles of classification. Role of immunologic failures in amyloidosis progress. Systemic amyloidosis: (primary, secondary): morphologic characteristics, clinical implications. Local and endocrine amyloidosis. Amyloid of insenescence: morphologic characteristic, clinical implication.

Immunodeficiency syndromes. Immunodeficiency: idea, etiology, classification.

Primary immunodeficiencies: definition, classification, methods of diagnosis. Clinicopathologic characteristics of primary immunodeficiencies. Causes of death.

Secondary (acquired) immunodeficiencies: definition, etiology, classification.

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): epidemiology, ways of transmission, etiology. Pathogenesis and morphogenesis. Clinicopathologic characteristics: AIDS-associated diseases, opportunistic infections, tumors. Complications, causes of death.

Iatrogenic interventions into immune system. Short characteristic of graft reject phenomena, ‘graft-versus-host” reactions, reaction to incompatible blood transfusion.

^

Practical class 10. Theme: Immunopathologic processes





Topicality of theme: immune system pathology is morphologic ground of rather big group of immune pathologic diseases. Clinical aspects of diseases will be different depending on its localization. However morphologic regularities of their progress are similar. Their knowledge makes it possible to evaluate in correct manner course and consequences of diseases accompanied by immune pathologic processes.

^ Aim: to learn immune system pathology reasons, classification and consequences for clinical picture.

Task: 1) To repeat immune system structure and functions and its components interaction.

2) To learn morphologic changes in immune system under antigen stimulation.

3) To know immune pathologic processes definitions and classification as well as causes and morphogenesis.

4) To know immunodeficiency conditions and autoimmune diseases classification and morphology.

5) To be able to differentiate clinicopathologic forms of various types of hypersensitivity reactions and interpret their implications.


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