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CalI to Arms”
Democracy is on the March
When the snarling's over
They have seen the future, and they aren't very interested
Сучасний рівень виробничих сил, величезні масштаби виробництва, розвиток науково-технічної революції, зростання міжнародної спец
Міцний військово-промисловий потенціал та значний вплив
Нормальна, чесна, працююча людина під тягарем проблем повсякденного життя
Незважаючи на зневажливе ставлення до італійського народу і низьку оцінку цієї країни як можливого військового союзника, Гітлер
Прекрасно розуміючи, що врешті-решт за все це комусь треба буде відповідати, вони
У підготовці пропозицій
Чи не здається вам, що за останні роки світ підійшов ближче до всесвітньої екологічної кризи?
Невже ви вважаєте, що й далі можна жити і розвиватися так, як це було раніше?
Суми Видавництво СумДУ 2009
Заступник першого проректора
Make the syntactic and morphological analysis of the following sentences paying attention to the translation difficulties
1 But just when they need time to work through their promising changes and help from the United States in completing them the European allies risk running into political static in Washington because of U.S. wishes to recast NATO in a role approximating a global policeman — a futuristic vision of the alliance that European policymakers see as premature now and perhaps forever. 2 The European Commission argues that “unfair tax competition” among EU countries distorts the single market — by allowing low-tax countries, or heavens, to attract capital from high-tax jurisdictions — and indirectly contributes to Europe's high unemployment rates by shifting taxation from capital to labour. 3 Europe seemed to find its footing in NATO's post Cold-war posture, finally making a promising start on European military cooperation demonstrating a new readiness to use force and pulling down barriers to consolidating its national defence companies into Europe - wide industries. 4 “Truths!” Charles de Gaulle is supposed to have shouted. “Did you think I could have created a [Free French] government against the English and the Americans with truths? You make History with ambition, not with truths”. 5 Taken with the smooth closure this year of alliance enlargement to include new members from Central Europe, there seems to be much to celebrate next year when Washington hosts ceremonies marking the anniversary of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 6 If the Parliament insists on pushing through a policy forged in the heat of an election campaign rather than out of the calm consideration and consultation that the Parliament's committee structure is supposed to encourage, ministers in London will have to accept the anomaly or follow suit. 7 Attempts to strengthen common foreign and security policy, the EU's
”second pillar” by importing majority voting or incorporating the Western European Union. Europe's defence club, into the EU, look like failing. The biggest changes are likely to come in the «third pillar»: justice and home affairs. 8 Considered on the fringes of legality because of its liberal views, the Freedom Movement (of Iran) has been allowed to field four candidates for the 15 municipal council seats in Tehran. 9 Built-in encryption also could make it easier to add access controls to PC's and routinely scramble all stored data, making it harder to steal computer resources or files. 10 The deal struck by European Union governments at their Berlin
summit leaves both their budget and their enlargement plans in a worse state than before. 11 “The Brazilian government move highlights the difficulty of implementing a deep belt-tightening in a country in which more than 40 percent of the population live in poverty”, — said an analyst in New York. 12 In remarks focusing heavily on his so-called new Labour government policy -- which seeks to marry social justice and workers' rights with a pro-business market-oriented economic policy — Mr. Blair heaped praise on South Africa. 13 Thousands of people rampaged Friday through the town, hurling stones at police stations and looting shops. Police fired plastic bullets at the mobs, killing at least one person and wounding nine. 14 “Boston college has wronged me and my students by caving into right-wing pressure and depriving me of my right to teach freely and depriving them of the opportunity to study with me”, said Mary Daly, 70, an associate professor of the college in a telephone interview. 15 No sooner had the European Commission resigned than the Prime Minister popped up in the House of Commons to tell MPs that this was no setback but a golden opportunity to push through «root and branch» reform of a Commission whose failings had been tolerated for far too long. Stretching a point, he boasted that it was his lot that had brought the Commission down. 16 The vice-president began by allaying fears that he would burden business with a green and heavy hand: government has its place as long as government knows its place, he said, adding that slump in the developing world makes growth a top priority for governments. 17 Until then  the infant Labour party had been the junior of the Liberals, helping them to win their landslide victory of 1906 and to enact a sweeping programme of social, and constitutional reform in great part inspired and led by Lloyd George. 18 These universities (Oxford and Cambridge) were rural rather than urban, and therefore residential, they took a collegiate form. Their function was not only to train the young for the professions, but to preserve the heritage of the past and transmit it to succeeding generations and to prepare them morally as well as intellectually for the larger duties of government and society. 19 Boeing executives suspect commission officials of passing on inside information about airline contracts to airbus officials in Toulouse. For that reason the Seattle company has been rather vague in some of its answers to the commission's requests for information, while formally cooperating with its inquiry. The commission is making a habit of interfering with firms from outside the EU when it thinks that competition is likely to be lessened. 20 Germany has complained strongly to Washington about restrictions facing foreign companies seeking to enter the US telecommunications market. Germany's finance minister expressed concern at the discretionary powers of the Federal Communications Commission to restrict access which, he said, could result in foreign companies being denied access to the US market “for general foreign policy or trade policy reasons”. 21 A college education is often a collection of courses without any connecting fiber. Yet decision-making is a function of being able to integrate what seems like unrelated variables, and understanding the balance between analytical and intuitive skills. Without knowing these variables, it is impossible to determine what information is needed, know how and where to get the information and select the information that is pertinent. 22 In facing up to the dangers, and living up to the importance of his task, President Kim [of South Korea] has made a good start. But to understand that start, and to get the measure of what is required of him in future, it is vital to ditch the idea that he is a «left-winger» who is becoming, or has to become, a convert to free-market ideas once anathema to him. That is so partly because such labels are everywhere much less helpful than they were, but partly, also because in South Korea's circumstances (and Mr. Kim's) they are especially misleading.
1 The place that scores highest in the coming superpower test is beyond much doubt, China. China's economy may not keep up its dizzy growth of the past 15 years, but even something more modest - an entirely possible 5-6% a year, say — would be enough to create a serious amount of power-projection over the next quarter of a century. That means a Chinese navy which can reach out into the Pacific; an army and air force capable of quickly putting an expeditionarу force on to a foreign battlefield; and an expansion of China's existing long-range nuclear armoury. China may or may not be able within this period to match the electronics of America's military command-and-control system but, even without that it will be a formidable power. 2 Most cases that come to the European Court of Justice are about enforcing single-market rules. A famous example was the 1979 ruling which said that a product approved for sale in one country must be accepted by others. This paved the way for mutual recognition of standards to become a cornerstone of the single market. 3 The future of FMU is shrouded in political uncertainty. The right kind of EMU would leave governments maximum sway in other aspects of policy. There is no reason in logic why a single currency should oblige governments to “harmonise” their tax or labour-market policies, for instance, and one good reason of political economy why any such thing should be opposed - namely, that harmonization enlarges the power of the state at the expense of individual freedom, whereas competition among governments (the alternative to harmonization) does the opposite. Yet main of Europe's politicians seek harmonization as an end in itself, others would accept more of it as the price for more effective action к reduce unemployment, promote competitiveness or what you have. 4 Reviewing earlier research and drawing on new work for this book, Messrs Dollar and Pritchett establish, first, that the raw correlation between aid and growth is near zero: more aid does not mean more growth. Perhaps other factors mask an underlying link, they concede; perhaps aid is deliberately given to countries growing very slowly (creating a misleading negative correlation between aid and growth, and biasing the numbers). 5 More of the new rich may discover philanthropy and good manners, just as the Astors did before them. But there is one difference. Much of the new pain, like much of the new wealth, is being created not by the rich but by globalisation. Already several politicians seem to be taking aim at the «winner-takes-all society». It is not hard to imagine talk of supertaxes or higher trade barriers to stop the injustice. But that might turn out to be like trying to ram an iceberg. 6 The back-to basics advocates will be surprised to learn that Japanese teachers are nothing like as authoritarian as they have assumed, and there is more learning-by-experiment and less by rote than is often claimed. 7 Sweden, even this Mecca of equality can't reconcile the female dilemma of balancing family and career. A whole new employment crisis could be closing in on the European Union. The population is shrinking, in some countries drastically, and that means fewer taxpayers to keep the social safety net hanging together. 8 The Americans are irritated by what they consider to be tax havens, some just off their coast (the Caribbean territories), perfectly placed to launder the earning of Latin American drug barons. (Drugs are thought to be the primary source of dirty money). 9 The British, and other big countries trying to crack down on money laundering, fear that it may prove impossible. After all as the report noted last month, no sooner has one loophole been closed than another opens. Illicit cash can be laundered through a whole variety of frauds using property, construction, insurance, stockbroking foreign exchange, gold or jewellery. 10 Mr. McCarthy, the Cayman's finance secretary, recently accused G7 countries of «trying to impose their political will on the less strong». Such noble concerns for human rights and for the weak might resonate more widely were it not that some offshore centres still enforce repressive social legislation, while thriving, in part, on the proceeds of crime. 11 The banks cannot blame all their woes on outside events. There are 25 new commercial banks that eagerly sought licences when the rules were liberalised. Many lent inadvisedly, often to their business affiliates. Much of the money went into property. Other loans went straight into the stockmarket. As it slumped so more loans went into default. 12 Spare a thought for Indonesia's bank doctors. Most of their patients became fatally ill last year, but in the interest of dignity they have to announce the deaths in installments. The announcement was greeted warmly by the World Bank and the I ML. which had scolded the government for delaying it. 13 Joseph Warren was a hero of the magnitude of Washington. Jefferson, or Lincoln. A medical doctor, he was a leader of the Sons of Liberty, a friend of Sam and John Adams, and he organized against tyranny and oppression. He conjured a sense of what a virtuous American people could do to rescue humanity from degradation at the hands of brutes and bullies. 14 China's improved infrastructure, increased know-how and better direct trade connections to the world mean that Hong Kong's ability to command the situation has been diminished. 15 Mr. Blair needs no reminding that the throw-the-rascals-out mood that gave the government its landslide had much to do with Mr. Major's broken promises of lower taxes. If Mr. Blair breaks his, he cannot expect to be forgiven. 16 More and more Swedish women work part-time and the majority
are clustered in the public sector, in lower-paying occupations like
teaching and nursing. 17 Just as the Scots throughout the 1980s lamented being governed by English politicians they had not elected, so the English — in time — may resent the Scottish say over their affairs. 18 The US President plans to call for a new round of global trade negotiations during his Stale of the Union address today. The talks would target industrial tariffs, agriculture, services, intellectual property, labour rights and environmental protection. 19 The president was to be wined, dined and entertained, but he was also expected to be confronted with demonstrations and protests. A demonstration was planned by environmental groups to protest the alleged reneging by the United States on promises to limit fallout of acid rain on Canada. 20 The House of Representatives will begin deliberations Tuesday on a bill to increase transportation aid to cities. The nation's handicapped are demanding the bill include regulations requiring cities with mass transit systems to improve facilities for handicapped and disabled people. A bill on mass transit passed the Senate in June, and supporters are pushing for passage in the lame duck House session. They anticipate a tougher battle should the bill have to face next year's more conservative Congress. 21 What the Prime Minister has to do is to convince a basically conservative government and business establishment at home that changes
must be made for Japan to continue as either an economic or political
power. At the same time he must move away from the old, tired promises of his predecessors and convince the international community that his nation has at last recognized the need and has the will to take a more meaningful role in the international arena (with all that it implies). Given the pressure both at home and abroad the going is bound to be rough but present premier just could be the one to pull it off. His seemingly passive form of government may well in the end be recognized as the most active of the postwar era. 22 For the teachers the inspectors have only praise. Their attitude “is
of professional commitment and resourcefulness”.
1While a few MPs are believed to favour this revolutionary proposal certain party leaders and older MPs are opposed to it. 2 Another early confrontation could occur in Nottinghamshire over the proposed closure of New Hucknall colliery near Mansfield. The Board announced yesterday that «redundancies are inevitable)) in Kent, as it plans to shut Snowdown Pit within three months, putting 960 jobs in jeopardy. 3 Senior staff at Granada TV's London offices staged a one-day strike yesterday in protest at the company withdrawing crèche facilities for staff children. All 50 members of the TV technicians' union, at Granada's Soho offices stopped work for the day, both men and women. Most of them were producers, directors and researchers. The strike was called because of the company's decision to end the crèche facility for staff children at a local nursery centre. 4 Leaders of the Federation of Labour met representation of the Government and employers on Nov. 17 to discuss how to further implement the suggestions regarding a longer term wages policy which had already been discussed. The major element in the discussion was the implementation of a Court ruling to hear the case for wages rates “catching up” in relation to past inflation. 5 At present, even the existence of the office is officially classified. In the intelligence community, it is known as a «black» operation, meaning that nothing about its work or the identity of its officials is subject to public scrutiny. 6 The vision one gets of a so-called constitutional reform is one of cheap nagging and bargaining, all at the expense of the Canadian people, who have been completely excluded from the debate. As for the New Democratic Party, “Rather than coming forward with a truly democratic alternative to the constitutional crisis, the NDP too has become part of this wheeling and dealing' at the expense of the national rights of the French Canadian people, the rights of the native peoples, the economic and social rights of the Canadian people”, the statement charges. From being among the advocates of Canadianization of resources, the NDP has now become the champion of provincial ownership of resources, even though these resources are in fact in the hands of the multinational corporations. 7 In the case of the Union of Post Office workers a member could be excluded from membership for up to twelve months since there was no provision for any stay pending appeal to annual conference. 8 The company is reluctant to consider the workers' demand for wage increase. What seems to be the case is that it wants to prevent any-drastic steps being taken to interfere with their profit making activity. 9 The fact is that local industrialists were invited to become members of the board when it was set up, and it must have been obvious that they would not only be concerned with local development, but in some cases be personally involved. 10 Complicated legal issues which have arisen are being studied by the Attorney General's department which believes there is a case for damages against the tanker's owners. 11 Yet for large and small nations, their record in the General Assembly does provide a yardstick with which to measure the application of their publicly announced foreign policy. 12 Mr H. is the only serious rival at present, and if politics was a science, he would be a formidable rival. He has a splendid record as a reform mayor and a courageous Senator. 13 Mr N. had been under fire from many sections of the student community for allegedly being out of touch with the problems of ordinary students, and his speech tonight was being regarded as a make-or-break bid to win back popular support for executive policy. 14 The biggest problem, however, is likely to be on the wage front. How cooperative will the unions be this summer as their demands culminate? A strong point is that the Chancellor of the Exchequer can now have as fullscale and thorough a Budget as he thinks necessary. 15 The tourist potential is as yet largely untapped. But every effort is being made to develop the industry into a major foreign exchange earner. Apart from the existing facilities, the National Development Corporation is embarking upon a major programme for tourist accommodation facilities. 16 There has been a vast deterioration of public facilities throughout the nation over recent decades, according to the study just made public by the Council of State Planning Agencies. 17 The council's 97-page study declares that the nation's streets, roads, including the Interstate Highway System, publicly operated solid waste and toxic waste sites, treatment plants, port facilities and dams have been permitted to deteriorate drastically. Hundreds of billions of dollars are necessary to halt the ongoing deterioration and to restore the facilities to their former level, let alone expand them to fill growing needs. The most important factors in the deterioration are not included in the study: the diversion1 of hundreds of billions of dollars from maintenance of the nation's public works into the pockets of the rich, through tax giveaways and the huge war budget. The cancer is bipartisan. 17 Americans are accustomed to a confrontational, adversarial relationship between the government and business. Japan's regulatory style is based on intensive dialogue and extensive interaction that leads to compromise. 18 Americans may have been disturbed by Lockheed's conduct but few of them had any sense of wounded national pride or much concern over loss of face in the international community. 19 The problem now is how to de-escalate this international crisis. 20 America should weigh the president's program on its merits and ignore the pretence that all the changes he has proposed are either necessary or sufficient to conquer stagflation. 21 Coming mainly from academia and think tanks, where they had been on the outside for years, they (Russian emigrants) found that being on the inside was both exhilarating and excruciating. 22 Big business relies on its massive public relations rumor mill to twist truth into lies. There is no question that this campaign has been a success.
1 The role of the Japanese military is a touchy subject, one that rattles China and other neighbors as well as Japanese citizens, all parties that till have bitter feelings about Japan's role in World War II. 2 With economic confidence across Europe already fragile and
economists cutting back growth forecasts, rising jobless totals in Europe's biggest economy threaten to further sour the mood, economists said. 3 “It is not an easy problem. But if we don't stop the conflict now, it clearly will spread. And then, we will not be able to stop it except at far greater cost and risk”. 4 The wealth of Britain's architectural heritage rests upon strata of changing taste. 5 There were no reports of violence during the protest. But scattered Christian-Muslim skirmishes on the island injured a handful of people Friday, witnesses said. 6 Many economists are predicting the labor market will weaken somewhat this year, although it will remain healthy by historical standards. 7 The state's troubles sent the Brazilian stock market plummeting as investors speculated the political battle over the debt would weaken the central government resolve to slash a budget deficit and ease interest rates. 8 The claim that congressional approval strengthens a president's policy is not one that presidents leap to test. 9 Whereas everybody wants a new president of the European Commission in place as soon as possible. Parliament — always keen on adding to its power — wants the procedure to go ahead under the new Amsterdam terms. 10 Iran and the Soviet Union once had the Caspian Sea to themselves, amicably dividing its precious caviar. The two knew the sea contained mineral wealth but neither did much about it. 11 “The larger a company gets, the more difficult it can be for the left hand to know what the right is doing”. 12 Hurt by the economic slump in Asia and a litany of production and deliver problems. Boeing sought to put the best face on its annual production and delivery data. 13 Reflecting Japan's spectacular economic growth, Tokyo's rapid development and above all Maki's [architect] evolving architectural philosophy, the changes helped create a dynamic complex that today anchors one of Tokyo's most popular neighborhoods. 14 Many critics of the government's program argue that it reflects what they say is Mr Blair's Achilles' heel: the desire to be all things to all people, to appeal to the conservative-leaning middle class that helped propel him into office in 1997 while not abandoning the poor and working classes, labour's traditional base. The tough talk, they say, is one thing; the reality may fall short of the promise. 15 Human rights are a basic American interest, and the administration should not flinch from promoting them. 16 The civil service is a black abyss of underpaid, underemployed, unsackable people. There are calls, for cutting the numbers radically, but if you do, you end up with an indigent army of unemployable people. 17 The once empty, and beautiful, Mediterranean shoreline has become a solid block of wall-to-wall holiday homes with their private beaches and marinas for middle-class Egyptians. 18 Genre painting existed in the ancient world but was generally deemed an inferior pursuit suitable for less talented artists, an assumption that was inherited by the Renaissance establishment. 19 The native Melanesian Ambonese are mainly Christians but many Asian Muslims from elsewhere in the vast Indonesian archipelago have come to the island for business and as civil servants. 20 The democratic peoples [of NATO members] admittedly do not relish sending their soldiers into foreign fields, but the evidence of the 20th century — two world wars, the cold war and, in the 1990s, the Gulf and Bosnia — suggests that they will generally act when they conclude that a principle or a major interest is under attack. 21 The public outrage gave Beijing “a chance to redirect some of the political energy in a population that might otherwise be antigovernment”, says a China scholar of Wellesley College. 22 French, long dominant at the commission of Fl1, has been rapidly losing ground to English, which, the French note acidly. is not even a language of continental Europe. 23 Some economists warn that a further slowdown in Europe's economy could encourage opponents of the common currency, the euro, to blame Monetary Union for the hard times. 24 ...the description of a solution to a problem as a “political” solution implies peaceful debate and arbitration as opposed to what is often called a “military” solution. 25 The record number of mergers of large companies into even larger ones last year has raised fears at many arts organizations and other nonprofit groups that a decline in corporate donations may be an unfortunate byproduct.
1 The euro is expected to accelerate European crossborder deals. By creating the foundations of pan-European market for capital, it exposes markets to stiffer competition. So it seems few taboos are left in Europe's once sleepy banking business: banks are merging with each other, with insurers, fund managers and others as never before. But are Europe's banks really set for a merger wave to rival that seen in America? In theory, Europe already has a single banking system. The reality is rather different. For some years to come further consolidation will be stymied by resistance from politicians, workers and even bank bosses and by the way that banking system has been structured. 2 EU presidency is enough to test any country's skills to the limit. It means arranging dozens of ministerial meetings and managing the paper-work for hundreds of specialist committees. Rare is the government that does not come to the end of its six months both relieved and exhausted. The Finns have a big reputation to live up to. Since joining the EU, and despite coming from its most distant edge, they have displayed an almost uncanny mastery of its workings. Many point to them as the very model how a “small country should operate within the EU's institutions: merely modest and purposeful matching a sense of principle with a sense of proportion”. 3 Once the state has rooted out absolute poverty, how much wealth, if any, should it confiscate to reduce inequality for its own sake? How much should it curtail individual freedoms — to purchase extra education, to pass on an inheritance — so that people have an equal chance in life? Is there some level beyond which inequality cannot be stretched without snapping the bonds that hold people together? Whatever the answer, these are questions a government should frame clearly, not bury in the obfuscation of “fairness”. Still less should a budget be so subtle that nobody can divine, whether, why or how much a government believes in redistribution. 4 Devolution is a healthy, and abiding tendency. To de-emphasize the federal government is to resurrect one of the original principles of American politics. The nation was conceived as a union of 13 pre-existing stales. The concept of national citizenship, as distinct from state citizenship, did not even exist until 1787, 11 years after independence. In the early days, the states showed their distinctive personalities by what they did about slavery or the enfranchisement of non-citizens, rather than welfare policy or the length of prison terms. But whatever the issues the taste for autonomy has endured and now seems, once again, to be growing. 5 So long as the democracies remember what experience has taught them, they are probably unbeatable. Take Europe and America apart, and that comforting prospect vanishes. The Americans by themselves will still base the means to act. as well as their keener sense of ideological commitment; but they will have fewer material interests in the outside world to feel concerned about, and the shock of the break with Europe could push them back to their old dream of hemispheric self-sufficiency. 6 The goal of the EU constitutional conference will be to streamline the European Commission and to fine-tune the voting powers of national governments in the Council of Ministers, so that both institutions can accommodate an influx of new members, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe, in the decade ahead. 7 In contrast to Plato's claim for the social value of education, a quite different idea of intellectual purposes was propounded by the Renaissance humanists. Intoxicated with their rediscovery of the classical learning that was thought to have disappeared during the Dark Ages, they argued that the imparting of knowledge needs no justification. 8 The lessons for tax policy are less direct. What is thought of as tax policy in the United States cannot exist in the European Union because the EU levies no taxes of its own? It is financed by contributions from the member states, which use their tax revenues to support the EU budget as well as their much larger national needs. Although political infighting over relative contributions is inevitable, EU members have also been squabbling over “harmonization” of national taxes - setting EU-wide rules for rates and regulations. The American experience suggests that this is quite unnecessary. The US Constitution provides few constraints on the ways in which the states may raise revenues: they can legally levy income taxes, corporate taxes, sales taxes and property taxes on their individual and corporate residents at any rates they want, and they do. State taxes vary, but the variations stay within limits because the citizens and the companies in the states compete with one another. The limits are imposed by economics, not legislation: they work and cause few quarrels. Similar natural limits are in fact becoming visible in Europe: the squabbles are unnecessary. 9 With monetary policy in the hands of the European Central Bank, fiscal policy — budget deficits and surpluses a la Keynes — is the remaining tool with which the member states of European Economic and Monetary Union, or EMU, can affect their own growth and employment. But such national autonomy is illusory however; the rules of monetary union limit deficits, and economic reality reinforces the rules. Before EMU a state could finance a deficit by borrowing from its own central bank. No longer.
The US model is again illuminating. The American states cannot run persistent deficits because they cannot borrow to finance those deficits, except at prohibitive interest rates. The federal government, however, can borrow from the Federal Reserve to finance immense deficits, has done so and surely will again when economic downturn calls for fiscal stimulus. Except for one crucial difference, the government of EMU could similarly borrow from the central bank when dictated by Europe's needs — the difference, of course, being that there is no government of EMU.
This leads to the possible lesson for political confederation. When recession suggests a continentwide need for stimulus, the pressure will be on the member states to create some sort of joint fiscal decision-making mechanism. Such a mechanism will not be called a confederation but it will be a major step in that direction. It will raise the question of whether the mechanism should be used for making other joint decisions. That in turn should reraise the question of the “democratic deficit”; in particular, should the one body elected by European individuals, the Parliament, be given more power over such decisions?
The move will be on. At that point, an American might even have the temerity to suggest that Europeans read “The Federalist” papers.
What Happened to That “Global Architecture”?
When Brazil had devalued the real, the folks in Washington who claim responsibility for global monetary order were uncustomarily silent. One is tempted to say there was stunned silence, but that would imply that Brazil's move came as a surprise to the Treasury and the International Monetary Fund.
Surely it didn't, but there was another very good reason to keep quiet. Brazil had been a test case for that new global “financial architecture” that President Bill Clinton proclaimed to the world last fall. The real's collapse made abundantly clear what some of us had assumed: The promise of a “new architecture” was just more Bill Clinton hot air.
Of course, the hot air had a purpose, as do all of Mr. Clinton's skillfully crafted orations. He wasn't striving for “new architecture” as he claimed, but rather trying to save the old architecture, which was in danger of collapse. Specifically, he was trying to persuade the US Congress to cough up more money for the tottering IMF. The Brazil gambit was one of the arguments employed. If the IMF were not refinanced, it could not bail out Brazil and Brazil would go the way of the Asian tigers, with serious repercussions for the US and world economy.
The string of disasters midwifed by the global money managers is reflective not only of misjudgments but of a fatal flaw in the existing “architecture”. Mr. Clinton had the words right in September, he just didn't know the score. Either new architecture or no architecture at all is needed. But a president who spends most of his working hours figuring out how to buy votes with public money is not likely to be very critical of a multilateral agency that does pretty much the same thing. It subsidizes two very influential constituencies, international bankers and the profligate politicians who preside over such places as Russia, Indonesia and Brazil.
These bankers and politicians got the IMF's number a long time ago. They knew that institutions, like natural organisms, fight for self-preservation.
New York — Two cheers for the Chief Justice who told the American Bar Association the other day that defense against crime was as vital to national security as “the budget of the Pentagons”. In fact, it's probably of more immediate concern to most Americans.
With no empty blasts about “getting tough”, he said many other things that needed to be said — for example, that the great cost of lowering crime rates would be less “than the billions in dollars and thousands of blighted lives now hostage to crime” . Nor is this an elitist view, since crime afflicts “the poor and minorities even more than the affluent”.
We need the undoubted deterrence of “swift arrest, prompt trial, certain penalty, and — at some point — finality of Judgment”. And to mount a real attack on crime will demand “more money than we have ever before devoted to law enforcement”, as well as much rethinking of what law enforcement should be.
Still, on such a complex and emotional subject, the chief justice inevitably raised more questions than he provided answers. It's true that crime will not disappear “if we but abolish poverty”. But it's more important that poverty and inequity and lack of economic opportunity breed crime, particularly when exacerbated by racial animosities, as in the United States. And where so much poverty exists in such proximity to so much affluence, the crime-breeding effect is likely to be greater.
The chief justice's specific proposals, moreover, will not be easy to effect, even when their validity is accepted. Trial “within weeks of arrest” is highly desirable, but where are hard-pressed cities like Cleveland and New York to find the money for the needed judges, prosecutors, police officers? And in most such cities, by far the most cases are now disposed of by plea bargaining rather than by trial.
He also proposed empowering judges to hold arrested persons without bail when “a combination of the particular crime and past record” makes it likely that the defendant will commit another crime while awaiting trial.
His argument for limiting the scope of appellate review of criminal convictions to “genuine claims of miscarriage of justice, and not a quest for error” also rests on judges' questionable ability to tell one from the other.
Unlike many reformers, the speaker knows that his proposals, if carried out, would send many more people to prison. He also understands that to send them to the overcrowded, underfunded, inadequately staffed and policed prisons of the United States would negate his purpose; because more, and more frightening, criminals come out of these schools of crime and violence than go into them.
That is why he proposes prison reforms. He wants prisons to provide mandatory educational and vocational programs designed to “cure” inmates who would be released with at least a basic education.
And what good are the basic skills the Chief Justice wants to give inmates when they return to a society largely unwilling to hire them — particularly blacks or Hispanic people with a record of violence — and an economy with a declining need for low-skill labor?
Deterrence of crime — particularly speedy trial and certain punishment — is vitally needed. How best to achieve it is a subject on which thoughtful and honorable persons disagree — and on which has usefully dramatized, not settled the debate.
|1. Expand the following into sentences in order to make true statements with doesn't or don't where necessary||1. Expand the following into sentences in order to make true statements with doesn't or don't where necessary|
move to 958-90398
|Instructions for the course of translation for the students of speciality "Translation"|
Тексти поділені на 3 блоки, до кожного пропонується завдання. З метою різнобічної підготовки перекладачів пропонується блок текстів...
|Teaching mathematics over the web tools and content, potentalities and difficulties|
|1. Make the right choice||Attention of readers|
|Attention of readers||Make a difference this summer|
|Analysis of pharmacies financial condition analysis of financial stability financial stability of the enterprise||Machine translation|