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Topic № 1
INTRODUCTORY LESSON. METHODS OF HYGIENIC RESEARCH. ORGANIZATION OF STUDENT’S EDUCATIONAL AND RESEARCH WORK (SERW)
1. Learning objective
1.1. Master the knowledge about the hygiene as a science and the sanitation, their goals, tasks, components, significance of hygienic knowledge for doctors of different profile.
1.2. Learn the classification of hygienic methods and the facilities of the research of the environment and its influence on organism and health.
1.3. Get acquainted with the structure of Sanitary and Epidemiologic Service of Ukraine, ways and methods of the public health protection, disease prevention.
1.4. Get acquainted with the procedure and topics of the students’ educational and research work, to assign the topic for each student.
2.1. You should know:
2.1.1. A concept of «prophylaxis» as one of basics of medicine, the hygiene and the sanitation as its components.
2.1.2. Basic concepts, methods and research facilities from physics, chemistry, biology, microbiology, physiology and other preceding courses which are used in research of environmental factors and their influence on human health.
2.1.3. Basics of the mathematical processing of medico-biological research results.
2.2. You should have the following skills:
2.2.1. The physical, chemical and bacteriological measuring of environmental objects and their influence on an organism.
2.2.2. Using the computers or calculators during the statistical processing of the results of hygienic researches.
3. Self-training questions
3.1. Prophylaxis as the main principle of public health protection. Public and individual prophylaxis; the primary, secondary and tertiary prophylaxis.
3.2. The hygiene as a scientific discipline, its purpose, tasks, essence.
3.3. Methods of hygienic research, their classification, description.
3.4. Methods of the environment inspection (sanitary inspection and description; organoleptic, physical, chemical, bacteriological methods, their essence and usage in hygiene study).
3.5. Methods of research of the environmental influence on the human health (experimental physiological, biochemical, histological, histochemical, haematological, toxicological, natural experiment methods, clinical).
3.6. Setting of hygienic norms and regulations as a basis of environment and public health protection, its objects and types.
3.7. Distinctive features of setting of norms and regulations for natural environmental factors, and anthropogenic factors.
3.8. Principles of the hygienic norm and regulation setting, organizations, responsible for that. Sanitary and legal legislation on the environment and public health protection.
3.9. Sanitation as a practical application of hygienic regulations and sanitary norms and rules, its use in work of health-officers and doctors of other specialties.
3.10. Structure of the Sanitary and Epidemiologic Service of Ukraine. State and local sanitary control, preventive and regular sanitary control.
3.11. Structure of the Sanitary and Epidemiologic Stations of different subordination levels (regional, city, district, departmental), their tasks, forms of their work.
This is the seminar. At the beginning of the lesson a written (or a computer-based) test is performed to control the initial level of students’ knowledge. For this purpose, 10 questions are offered for students. They include basic knowledge from different subjects studied before the course of hygiene, which are used in hygienic research.
The definitions of ”hygiene”, “sanitation”, their objectives, tasks, classification of methods, ways of reaching the objectives and fulfilling tasks are considered in details in the main part of the lesson. The students get acquainted with devices and equipment required for the hygienic research, learn the structure of Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Ukraine, structure of sanitary and epidemiological station, forms of sanitary inspection – preventive and regular (see appendix 2).
During the break the tutor presents to students the Chair, its history, directions to scientific research, profile scientific laboratories.
After that the tutor informs the students about the order of the protocol registration and the order for working off the missed lessons.
At this lesson the students receive the topic for their educational and research work (may be either a report or an experimental research). The list of recommended topics and the instructions for the paperwork, necessary for the SERW are covered in appendix 3.
5.1.1. Загальна гігієна. Пропедевтика гігієни. / Є.Г. Гончарук, Ю.І. Кундієв, В.Г. Бардов та ін. / За ред. Є.Г. Гончарука. – К.: Вища школа, 1995. – С. 48-87; 138-142; 507-530.
5.1.2. Общая гигиена. Пропедевтика гигиены. / Е.И.Гончарук, Ю.И. Кундиев, В.Г. Бардов и др. – К.: Вища школа, 2000 – С. 8-96; 155-161; 593-624.
5.1.3. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д. Профілактична медицина. Загальна гігієна з основами екології. 2-ге вид. – К.: Здоров’я, 2004 – С. 14-74.
5.1.4. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д. Основи загальної та тропічної гігієни. – К.: Здоровя, 1995 – С. 6-11.
5.1.5. Габович Р.Д., Познанский С.С., Шахбазян Р.Х. Гигиена. – К.: Вища школа, 1983. – с. 5-11.
5.1.6. Даценко І.І. та інші. Загальна гігієна: Посібник для практичних занять. /За ред. І.І. Даценко. – Львів: Світ, 2001. – 472 с.
5.2.1. Минх А.А. Методы гигиенических исследований. – М.: Медицина, 1971 – С. 584.
5.2.2. Даценко І.І. Гігієна та екологія людини. Навчальний посібник. – Львів: “Афіша”, 2000. – 247с.
5.2.3. Бардов В.Г., Сергета І.В. Загальна гігієна та екологія людини. (Навчальний посібник). – Вінниця: „Нова книга”, 2002. – 216 с.
6. Equipment required for the lesson
1. Devices for physical factors measuring (thermometers, psychrometers, anemometers, luxmeters, noise dosimeters, dosimeters, radiometers).
2. Devices and equipment for chemical research methods (photoelectrocolorimeter, reagent samples, chemical dishes etc.).
3. Devices for bacteriological analysis (Krotov’s device, microscopes etc.).
4. Devices for physiological-hygienic research (Gorbachov’s biodosimeter, adaptometer, audiometer, ergograph etc.).
ORDER OF THE LESSON PROTOCOL REGISTGATION
1. While preparing for the lesson the students write down the following information from the "Practical lesson textbook":
Topic of the lesson:
Objective of the lesson:
Basic knowledge and skills (to know __________, to have skill__________)
Solution of the self-training assignments.
The student writes the answers to the theoretic questions considered during the lesson down in the protocol.
Furthermore the student must write down the following information in the laboratory lesson:
- methods of the laboratory research;
- the results of the studies;
- necessary calculations;
- conclusions and recommendations.
3. The student draws instruments, nomograms, diagrams (or copies them and sticks into the protocol with the glue) used in the lesson.
THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENTS MUST BE PRESENTED AT THE FINAL COURSE EXAMINATION
1. The list of questions on medical biology, biophysics and chemistry.
1.3. Forms of biotic relationships and the circle of matters in the nature, Newton’s laws, laws of the thermodynamics.
1.4. The classification of physical, chemical, biological environmental factors.
1.5. The characteristic of devices which are used for the measurement of physical environmental factors. The influence of physical environmental factors on organism.
1.6. The definition of "volumetric chemical analysis" and types of titrated chemical solutions.
1.7. The units of the "SI" (International System of Units) and their usage in medicine.
2. The list of questions on the normal physiology, bioinorganic, colloid and bioorganic chemistry, microbiology with virology and immunology.
2.7. The biochemical composition of the blood: concentration of protein and protein fractions, lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, ά-, β-lipoproteins, glycogen, sugar, acetone etc.
2.8. Functions of nutrient substances in human body: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, their caloric value, vitamins, macro- and microelements, stimulation of digestion (flavouring substances).
3. The list of questions on pharmacology, pathological physiology,
propaedeutics of internal illnesses
3.1. The definitions of "health", "illness", "aetiology", "pathogenesis" of diseases, modern classification of diseases (nosology).
3.2. The definition of "aetiological factors", their classification. Aetiological risk factors.
3.3. The definitions of "pathological", "premorbid" condition, "pathological process". The main stages of illness development and terminal conditions.
3.4. Physiological changes in organism in the low and high atmospheric pressure conditions.
3.5. Heat regulation mechanisms due to which the healthy human body temperature is constant. How these mechanisms change in hot and cold microclimate conditions.
3.6. Modern theories of the physical and emotional fatigue and overfatigue which are developed during physical activity and emotional pressure.
3.7. Stress as an organism reaction to the negative influence of environmental factors.
3.8. The signs of the most frequently occurred hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis due to the malnutrition and among children.
3.9. Classification of pharmaceutical means used in preventive medicine (immune, protective, stimulating, disinfectant etc.).
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