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ASPECTS OF NATURAL GAZA ADAPTATION AS ALTERNATIVE MOTOR FUEL
D. Gorobchenko, T. Mogilenets
Sumy State University. Sumy, Ukraine
The ecological situation of the urbanised territories tends to worsen. The main cause of environmental problems is high level of burning high-toxic fuel. The inefficient system of public transport, growing number of private transport, small prevalence of eco-effective types of vehicles and fuel causes the increasing emissions of carbonic gas, nitric oxide, non-flammable hydrocarbons, lead, benzene, carbon oxide, firm particles and so forth.
Alternative kinds of motor fuel adaptation, ecological safety of the transport vehicles with internal combustion engines increase, promotes partial or full solution of urban environmental problems and achievement of sustainable development purposes by separate territories in particular and states as a whole.
The most accessible and widely applied in Ukraine and the world an alternative kind of fuel is the compressed natural gas (methane). Its use as motor fuel has conclusive advantages in comparison with other kinds of fuel.
Economic advantages of natural gas application as motor transport fuel is defined by such factors: practically there is no difference in fuel consumption; the lowest cost per unit of fuel; more simple and cheaper process of fuel purification. Technical advantages: high power-potential of natural gas; profitability of gas engines; durability of the equipment. Ecological advantages: smaller toxicity of exhaust gases; more explosion-proof exploitation; ecological safety of gas engines.
Specific advantage to Ukraine lie in possibility of methane extraction from coal sediments layers, formed as a result of biochemical and physical processes during transformation of a vegetative material to coal. Coal methane leakages cause a numerous accident on the Ukrainian mines as a result of special equipment on its extraction absence. However it can be extracted as an independent or by-product in the course of decontamination of mines and to be used in a national economy.
By the minimum calculations, rough estimation of methane resources in Ukraine is 1.7–2 billion cubic metres, which put Ukraine on the ninth place among the largest coal-mining countries of the world. However, national programs of development of power branch only establish the given fact.
Economic benefit of increase in a share of the transport hydrides can considerably reduce costs for energy resources, increase resource of motor equipment without considerable loss of capacity and improve the general level of traffic safety.
The social and ecological effect can be expressed by reduction of the social and economic losses connected with high level of disease of the population caused by existence in ecologically adverse environment, the accelerated deterioration of house holds, communal services and other objects of the high social importance; the general improvement of an ecological situation of city territories.
The basic difficulties of alternative fuel vehicles expansion consist in the necessity of filling stations system development, car repair shops with the highly skilled personnel creation; the expensiveness of the established equipment; higher requirements to accuracy of the equipment and its expensive repair.
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