Module І. Fundamentals of Cytology and General Embryology. Content module 2 icon

Module І. Fundamentals of Cytology and General Embryology. Content module 2




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НазваModule І. Fundamentals of Cytology and General Embryology. Content module 2
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Students' Independent Study Program:


I. Objectives for Students' Independent Studies

You should prepare for the practical class using the existing textbooks and lectures. Special attention should be paid to the following:

  1. Amnion, yolk sac, allantois and chorion development sources.

  2. Structural components and functions of the yolk sac.

  3. Structural components and functions of the amnion.

  4. Structure and functions of the allantois.

  5. Chorion formation. Primary, secondary and tertiary villi of the chorion, their morphological particularities. Types of the chorion.

  6. Umbilical cord origin, components and functions.

  7. Placenta (fetal and maternal parts), its structure and functions.

  8. Structural compounds of placental barrier.


Real-life situations to be solved:

        1. As a rule maternal and fetal blood has no direct communication. Embryo blood is passes in the placenta vessels and mother blood circulates in the intervillous space. Name the cells and the tissues which separate maternal and fetal blood circulation in the second trimester of pregnancy?

        2. In a histologic specimen there is a maternal placenta with large light cells with round shape nuclei in the uterine mucosa. What are these cells? What are their functions?

        3. Placenta is crossed into two parts: maternal and fetal. How can you recognize both of them in histologic specimen?

        4. Sometimes implantation may occur in the isthmus of uterine. The course of early pregnancy stage may be normal but later it will be interrupted. Why? Why is there no possibility for the normal development of fetus in such a position of placenta?

        5. A baby was born in "shirt". What structure is this? What is the origin of epithelium covering it inside?

        6. You see a yolk sac in a human embryo specimen. He doesn't contain a yolk. What are his functions?

        7. It was revealed a great amount of a-protein in amniotic liquor under amniocentesis. What does this fact testify? What recommendations is it necessary to give to a pregnant woman?


^ VISUAL AIDS AND MATERIAL TOOLS:

Students should be able to indicate elements in the electronmicrographs

  1. Multinuclear structure - symplast (chorjionic villi). Fig, 9.

  2. Nuclei.

  3. Plasmolemma.

  4. Cytoplasm.


Students' Practical Activities:

Students must know and illustrate such histological specimens:

Specimen 1. Umbilical cord.

Stained with haematoxylin and eosin.

In the specimen you see the cross section of umbilical cord, which is cowered by amniotic epithelium. Extraembryonic connective tissue presents the stroma of umbilical cord (jelly of Wharton). There are 2 arteries and one vein there. Arteries pass the blood from the embryo and vein - to him. Very often there is a remnant of yolk sac too. It looks like a weak split cowered by flat epithelium inside. Sometimes blood islets are seen in the yolk sac wall. The remnant of allantois has a small cavity separated by cuboidal epithelium.

Illustrate and indicate: 1. Epithelium of amnion; 2. Mucous connective tissue; 3. Vein; 4. Arteries.

  • What kind of vessels may be observed in umbilical cord?

  • Why they are not closed?

Specimen 2. Human placenta

Stained with haematoxylin and eosin.

I. Fetal placenta.

The fetal portion of placenta is covered by amniotic tunic, with a simple prismatic epithelium. There is a chorionic plate under the amnion that contains large vessels. These structures are covered by cyto- and syncytiotrophoblast outside. They are disposed in lacunae with maternal blood. On the cross section of villi it is seen: the wall of chorionic villi fulfilled with connective tissue. Sometimes fetal vessels are seen there.

Illustrate and indicate: 1. Epithelium of amnion; 2, Chorionic plate; 3. Chorionic villi: a) cytotrophoblast; b) syncytiotrophoblast; c) stroma; d) blood vessels; 4. Lacunae with maternal blood.

  • What germ layers do the fetal placenta consists of?

  • What is the tertiary villus structure?

  • What type is the human placenta?

II. Maternal placenta.

Maternal placenta consists of deciduas basalis with numerous decidual cells and connective tissue septae. Decidual cells are large oval shaped cells with cytoplasm of light rose color. These septae separate villi in lacunae from maternal blood.

Illustrate and indicate: 1. Decidua basalis: a) decidual cells; b) connective tissue; 2. Myometrium.

  1. What structures does the maternal placenta consist of?

  2. Why does the fetal and maternal blood can’t be mixed?


References:

  1. Human embryology. Seventh edition. Indermirg Singh, G.P.Pal. Macmillan Indian Ltd. New Delhi.2001. P. 53– 81.

  2. Embryology /Early human development. Fetal membranes. Comparing embryology. N.K.Kashirina, K.S.Volkov. Ternopil, TSMU. Ukrmedknyha.2006. P.77-89.


^ MODULE І. Fundamentals of Cytology and General Embryology

Content module 2. General and Comparative Embryology

Practical class № 13

Duration of the practical class: 2 hours

theme: HUMAN EMBRYOGENESIS


Professional Motivation: Studying of the human embryology is the basis for obstetrics, gynecology and pediatrics. Is necessary to know the human progenesis and embryogenesis to prevent the development of some malformations, to make a control of histogenesis and organogenesis during pregnancy, to determine causes of twin’s development, stages and place of implantation, normal development of the placenta. Doctors must know the action of different negative factors on the embryo during pregnancy and critical periods in the human development.


^ Basic Level:

  1. Human Anatomy department

  2. School course of Human Anatomy and Physiology.



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