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Krok Medicine 2006

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Krok 1. Medicine 2006

1 Buffer capacity of a worker's blood was decreased due to exhausting muscular work. By coming of what acid substance in the blood can this state be explained?

A. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

B. 3-phosphoglycerate

C. Pyruvate

D. Lactate

E. б-ketoglutarate

2 A doctor administered Allopurinol to a 26-year-old young man with the symptoms of gout. What pharmacological action of Allopurinol ensures therapeutical effect?

A. By general anti-inflammatory effect

B. By inhibiting leucocyte migration into the joint

C. By general analgetic effect

D. By inhibiting uric acid synthesis

E. By increasing uric acid excretion

3 A 25-year-old patient complained of the decreased vision. Accommodation disorders, dilated pupil, lack of reaction for the light were revealed on examination. What muscles function is disturbed?

^ A. Inferior oblique muscle, ciliary

B. Pupil dilating muscle, ciliary

C. Pupil narrowing and dilating muscles

D. Pupil narrowing muscle, ciliary

E. Lateral rectus muscle, pupil narrowing

4 A 38-year-old man who poisoned himself with mercury dichloride was taken to the admission room in grave condition. What antidote should be immediately introduced?

A. Isonitrosine

B. Nalorphine

C. Dipiroxim

D. Atropine

E. Unithiol

5 An old woman was hospitalized with acute pain, edema in the right hip joint; the movements in the joint are limited. Which bone or part of it was broken?

^ A. The neck of the thigh

B. Pubic bone

C. The body of the thigh bone

D. Condyle of the thigh

E. Ischial bone

6 For a long time a 49-year-old woman had suffered from glomerulonephritis which caused death. The autopsy revealed that the size of her kidneys was 7 х 3 х 2,5 cm, weight 65,0 g, they were dense and small-grained. Microscopically: fibrinogenous inflammation of serous and mucous membranes, dystrophic changes of parenchymatous organs, brain edema. What complication can cause such changes of serous membranes and inner organs?

A. Anemia

B. Thrombopenia

C. Uraemia

D. Sepsis

E. DIC-syndrome

7 A man who was bitten by the unknown dog applied to the surgeon. Wide ragged woundes were localized on the face. What curative-prophylactic aid should be given to prevent rabies?

^ A. Start immunisation with rabies vaccine

B. Immediately inject normal gamma globulin

C. Prescribe combined antibiotic therapy

D. Immediate injection of DPT(Diphtheria, Pertusis, Tetanus) vaccine

E. Hospitalize the patient and keep under the doctor's supervision

8 Different functional groups can be presented in the structure of L-amino acid's radicals. Identify the group that is able to form ester bond:

A. -NH2

B. -OH


D. -SH

E. -CH3

9 A 50-year-old patient was injured on the occipital region of the head. The closed skull trauma was diagnosed. She was taken to the hospital. The medical examination: deregulation of walking and balance, trembling of arms. What part of brain was injured?

^ A. The medulla oblongata

B. The inter-brain

C. The spinal cord

D. The cerebellum

E. The mind-brain

10 A patient with infectious mononucleosis had been taking glucocorticoids for two weeks. He was brought into remission, but he fell ill with acute attack of chronic tonsillitis. What action of glucocorticoids caused this complication?

A. Antiallergic

B. Immunosuppressive

C. Antitoxic

D. Antishock

E. Anti-inflammatory

11 An individual is characterized by rounded face, broad forehead, a mongolian type of eyelid fold, flattened nasal bridge, permanently open mouth, projecting lower lip, protruding tongue, short neck, flat hands, and stubby fingers. What diagnosis can be put to the patient?

^ A. Down's syndrome

B. Turner's syndrome

C. Klinefelter's syndrome

D. Supermales

E. Alkaptonuria

12 The process of heart transplantation determined the viability of myocardial cells. The determination of what myocardium parameter is the most important?

^ A. Rest potential of cardiomyocytes

B. Concentration of calcium-ions in myofibrils

C. Concentration of oxygen in heart vessels

D. Heart temperature

E. Concentration of Ca-ions in heart vessels

13 A tissue sample of benign tumor was studied under the electron microscope. A lot of small (15-20 nm) spherical bodies, consisting of 2 unequal subunits were detected. These are:

A. Golgi complex

B. Mitochondria

C. Microtubules

D. Ribosomes

E. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

14 Patient with injured muscles of the lower extremities was admitted to the traumatological department. Due to what cells is reparative regeneration of the muscle fibers and restoration of the muscle function possible?

^ A. Satellite-cells

B. Fibroblasts

C. Myoepithelial cells

D. Myofibroblasts

E. Myoblasts

15 A patient visited a dentist with complaints of redness and edema of his mouth mucous membrane in a month after dental prosthesis. The patient was diagnosed with allergic stomatitis. What type of allergic reaction by Gell and Cumbs underlies this disease?

A. Cytotoxic

B. Delayed type hypersensitivity

C. Anaphylactic

D. Stimulating

E. Immunocomplex

16 Donor skin transplantation was performed to a patient with extensive burns. On the 8-th day the graft became swollen and changed colour; on the 11-th day graft rejection started. What cells take part in this process?

A. B-lymphocytes

B. Erythrocytes

C. T-lymphocytes

D. Basophils

E. Eosinophils

17 A patient has tissue ischemia below the knee joint accompanied with intermittent claudication. What artery occlusion should be suspected?

^ A. Peroneal artery

B. Popliteal artery

C. Proximal part of femoral artery

D. Anterior tibial artery

E. Posterior tibial artery

18 A patient with suspected diphtheria went through bacterioscopic examination. Examination of throat swab revealed rod-shaped bacteria with volutin granules. What etiotropic preparation should be chosen in this case?

A. Interferon

B. Bacteriophage

C. Diphtheria antitoxin

D. Antidiphtheric antitoxic serum

E. Eubiotic

19 Autopsy of a 12-year-old girl revealed: multiple cutaneous hemmorhages (mostly into the skin of buttocks, lower extremities), serous and mucous memrane hemmorhages, cerebral hemmorhages. Adrenal glands show focal necrosis and massive hemmorhages; kidneys show necrotic nephrosis, suppurative arthritis, iridocyclitis, vasculitis. What is the most probable diagnosis?

^ A. Epidemic typhus

B. Radiation sickness

C. Meningococcemia

D. Systemic lupus erythematosus

E. Periarteritis nodosa

20 Hypertrychosis of auricles is caused by a gene that is localized in Y-chromosome. Father has this feature. What is the probability to give birth to a boy with such anomaly?

A. 25%

B. 0%

C. 35%

D. 75%

E. 100%

21 As a result of craniocerebral trauma a patient reveals the following symptoms: intention tremor, dysmetry, adiadochokinesis, dysarthria. What structure of the brain is injured?

A. Motor cortex

B. Pale sphere

C. Cerebellum

D. Striatum

E. Black substance

22 A patient working at a chemical plant was admitted to the toxicological department with mercury poisoning. What medicine should be used?

A. Unithiol

B. Activated carbon

C. Enterosorbent

D. Isonitrozin

E. Naloxone

23 Most participants of Magellan expedition to America died from avitominosis. This disease declared itself by general weakness, subcutaneous hemmorhages, falling of teeth, gingival hemmorhages. What is the name of this avitaminosis?

^ A. Biermer's anemia

B. Pellagra

C. Rachitis

D. Polyneuritis (beriberi)

E. Scurvy

24 The preventive radioprotector was given to a worker of a nuclear power station. What mechanism from the below mentioned is considered to be the main mechanism of radioprotection?

^ A. Activation of oxidation reactions

B. Inhibition of free radicals formation

C. Prevention of tissue's hypoxia

D. Increasing of tissue blood supply

E. Increasing of respiration

25 A

patient died from acute cardiac insufficiency. The histological examination of his heart revealed the necrotized section in myocardium of the left ventricle, which was separated from undamaged tissue by the zone of hyperimic vessels, small hemorrhages and leukocytic infiltration. What is the most likely diagnosis?

^ A. Focal exudate myocarditis

B. Diffuse exudate myocarditis

C. Myocardial infarction

D. Productive myocarditis

E. Myocardial ischemic dystrophy

26 Objective examination of a patient revealed: slender figure, big skull, highly developed frontal region of face, short extremities. What constitutional type is it characteristic for?

A. Respiratory

B. Mixed

C. Digestive

D. Cerebral

E. Muscular

27 An isolated muscle of a frog is rhythmically irritated with electric impulses. Every next impulse is in a period of relaxation from the previus contraction. What contraction of the muscle occurs?

A. Waved tetanus

B. Single

C. Continuous (smooth) tetanus

D. Tonic

E. Asynchronous

28 A 60-year-old patient has reduced perception of high-frequency sounds. What structures' disorder of auditory analizer caused these changes?

^ A. Main membrane of cochlea near the oval window

B. Tympanic membrane

C. Muscles of middle ear

D. Main membrane of cochlea near helicotrema

E. Eustachian tube

29 Diagnostic scraping was performed to the woman with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Multiple convoluted glands, ganglially dilated lumens of some glands were revealed histologically in the scrape. Name the type of general pathological process in endometry:

^ A. Hypertrophic excrescence

B. Displasia

C. Metaplasia

D. Atrophy

E. Hyperplasia glandulocystica

30 To prevent long-term effects of 4-day malaria a 42-year-old patient was prescribed primaquine. On the 3-rd day from the begin of treatment there appeared stomach and heart pains, dyspepsia, general cyanosis, hemoglobinuria. What caused side effects of the preparation?

^ A. Decreased activity of microsomal liver enzymes

B. Delayed urinary excretion of the preparation

C. Cumulation of the preparation

D. Genetic insufficiency of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase

E. Drug potentiation by other preparations

31 An intraoperational biopsy of mammary gland has revealed the signs of atypical tissue presented by disorder of parenchyma stroma proportion with domination of the last, gland structures of different size and shape, lined with single-layered proliferative epithelium. What is the most probable diagnosis?

A. Mastitis

B. Fibroadenoma

C. Noninfiltrative cancer

D. Infiltrative cancer

E. Papilloma

32 Inhibition of б-motoneuron of the extensor muscles was noticed after stimulation of б-motoneuron of the flexor muscles during the experiment on the spinal cord. What type of inhibition is this process based upon?

^ A. Depolarizational

B. Recurrent

C. Lateral

D. Presynaptic

E. Reciprocal

33 Desulfiram is widely used in medical practice to prevent alcocholism. It inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase. Increased level of what metabolite causes aversion to alcochol?

A. Methanol

B. Acetaldehyde

C. Malonyl aldehyde

D. Ethanol

E. Propionic aldehyde

34 A 60-year-old patient fell ill with obturative jaundice as a result of malignant tumour of the big papillary of the duodenum. Lumen of what anatomical structure is compressed by tumour?

^ A. Left hepatic duct

B. Right hepatic duct

C. Common hepatic duct

D. Hepatopancreatic ampulla

E. Cystic duct

35 A 38-year-old patient died during intractable attack of bronchial asthma. Histologic examination revealed mucus accumulation in bronchial lumen, a lot of fat cells (labrocytes) in the wall of bronches, many of them are in the state of degranulation, there are also a lot of eosinophils. What pathogenesis of bronchial changes is it?

A. Atrophy

B. Cytotoxic, cytolytic action of antibodies

C. Granulomatosis

D. Immunocomplex mechanism

E. Cellular cytolysis

36 Part of alveoles of a preterm infant didn't spread because of enhanced elastic recoil of lungs. How can this recoil be reduced?

^ A. By artificial pulmonary ventilation

B. By glycose introduction

C. By pure oxygene inhalation

D. By surfactant introduction

E. By fluid suction from the respiratory tracts

37 Autopsy of a man who died from chronic cardiaovascular collapse revealed "tiger heart". Sidewards of endocardium a yellowish-white banding can be seen; myocardium is dull, dark-yellow. What process caused this pathology?

^ A. Fatty parenchymatous degeneration

B. Carbohydrate degeneration

C. Fatty vascular-stromal degeneration

D. Amyloidosis

E. Hyaline degeneration

38 A patient's blood was analyzed and the decreased erythrocyte's sedimentation rate (ESR) was discovered. What disease from the listed below is accompanied with decreased ESR?

A. Hepatitis

B. Polycytemia

C. Vitamin B deficiency

D. Splenomegaly

E. Myocardial infarction

39 Tuberculine was introduced intracutaneously to the child for tuberculin test. Marked hyperemia, tissue infiltration developed on the place of injection in 24 hours. What mechanism caused these modifications?

^ A. Antibody cytotoxity

B. Reagin type cytotoxity

C. Granuloma formation

D. Immunocomplex cytotoxity

E. Cell cytotoxity

40 A 34-year-old patient was diagnosed with chronic glomerulonephritis 3 years ago. Edema have developed within the last 6 months. What caused the edema?

^ A. Hyperosmolarity of plasma

B. Hyperproduction of vasopressin

C. Proteinuria

D. Hyperaldosteronism

E. Liver dysfunction of protein formation

41 A 57-year-old patient was admitted to the gastroenterological department with suspicion of Zollinger-Ellison syndrom because of rapid increase of gastrin level in the blood serum. What is the most probable disorder of the secretory function of stomach?

^ A. Hypoacidic hypersecretion

B. Hyperacidic hypersecretion

C. Hypoacidic hyposecretion

D. Achylia

E. Hyperacidic hyposecretion

42 A 54-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with complaints of pain in the right subcostal region, vomiting with blood. Objectively: enlarged liver, varicose veins in the stomach and esophagus. Disfunction of what vessel is likely to have taken place?

^ A. Aorta abdominalis

B. Vena hepatica

C. Vena cava inferior

D. Vena porta

E. Vena cava superior

43 Kidneys of a man under examination show increased resorbtion of calcium ions and decreased resorbtion of phosphate ions. What hormone causes this phenomenon?

^ A. Thyrocalcitonin

B. Vasopressin

C. Hormonal form D3

D. Aldosterone

E. Parathormone

44 In the specimen of one of the parts of respiratory system a tubular organ was found. It has low epithelium, well developed muscular tunic, glands and cartilage are absent. Name this organ:

A. Median bronchs

B. Larynx

C. Major bronchs

D. Minor bronchs

E. Trachea

45 Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20% as a result of prolonged starvation of an individual. The most evident cause of filtration changes under this conditions is:

^ A. Increase of penetration of the renal filter

B. Increase of renal plasma stream

C. Increase of filtration coefficient

D. Decrease of oncotic pressure of blood plasma

E. Increase of systemic blood pressure

46 Microspecimen of red bone marrow contains multiple capillares through the walls of which mature blood cells penetrate into the bloodstream. What type of capillares are these?

A. Fenestrational

B. Sinusoidal

C. Somatical

D. Visceral

E. Lymphatic

47 Secretion of what gastrointestinal hormones will be primarily decreased as a result of iduodenum removal?

A. Neurotensin

B. Histamine

C. Cholecystokinin and secretin

D. Gastrin

E. Gastrin and histamine

48 A person was selling "homemade pork" sausages at the market. State sanitary inspector suspected falcification of the sausages. What serological immune reaction can identifiy food substance?

^ A. Complement-fixation test

B. Indirect hemagglutination test

C. Precipitation test

D. Immunofluorescence test

E. Agglutination test

49 Microscopic examination of the enlarged neck gland of a 14-year-old girl revealed destruction of the tissue structure of the node, absence of the lymph follicles, sclerotic areas and necrosis foci, cell constitution of the node is polymorphous, lymphocites, eosinophiles, big atypical cells with multilobular nuclei (Beresovsky-Sternberg cells) and mononuclear cells of the large size are present. What is the most likely diagnosis?

^ A. Fungoid mycosis

B. Acute lympholeucosis

C. Chronic lympholeucosis

D. Berkitt's lymphoma

E. Lymphogranulomatosis

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Krok Medicine 2006 iconKrok Medicine. 2006

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Krok Medicine 2006 iconKrok 1 Medicine 2004
В2 is administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in microorganisms?
Krok Medicine 2006 iconKrok 1 Medicine 2004
В2 is administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in microorganisms?
Krok Medicine 2006 iconKrok 1 Medicine 2004
В2 is administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in microorganisms?
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