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5. 0 Біохімія 1

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5.0 Біохімія


After consumption of rich food a patient has nausea and heartburn, steatorrhea. This

condition might be caused by:

A Bile acid deficiency

B Increased lipase secretion

C Disturbed tripsin synthesis

D Amylase deficiency

E Disturbed phospholipase synthesis


Galactosemia is revealed in the child. Concentration of glucose in the blood is not

considerably changed. Deficiency of what enzyme caused this illness?

A Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase

B Amylo-1,6-glucosidase

C Phosphoglucomutase

D Galactokinase

E Hexokinase


Fatty of phospholipids is disordered due to fat infiltration of the liver. Indicate which of the

presented substances can enhance the process of methylation during phospholipids


A Methionine

B Ascorbic acid

C Glucose

D Glycerin

E Citrate


Characteristic sign of glycogenosis is muscle pain during physical work. Blood examination

reveals usually hypoglycemia. This pathology is caused by congenital deficiency of the

following enzyme:

A Glycogen phosphorylase

B Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase

C Alpha amylase

D Gamma amylase

E Lysosomal glycosidase


An infant has apparent diarrhea resulting from improper feeding. One of the main diarrhea

effects is plentiful excretion of sodium bicarbonate. What form of acid-base balance

disorder is the case?

A Metabolic acidosis

B Metabolic alkalosis

C Respiratory acidosis

D Respiratory alkalosis

E No disorders of acid-base balance will be observed


Methotrexate (structural analogue of the folic acid which is competitive inhibitor of the

dihydrofolatreductase) is prescribed for treatment of the malignant tumour.On which level

does methotrexate inhibit synthesis of the nucleic acids?

A Mononucleotide synthesis

B Replication

C Transcription

D Reparation

E Processing


RNA-polymeraseB(II) is blocked due to amanitine poisoning (poison of death-cup). It


A Synthesis of m-RNA

B Synthesis of t-RNA

C Reverse transcription

D Primers synthesis

E Maturation of m-RNA


Pain along large nervous stems and increased amount of pyruvate in the blood were

revealed in the patient. Insufficiency of what vitamin can cause such change?

A $В_1$

B $В_2$


D Pantothenic acid

E Biotin


Patient with encephalopathy was admitted to the neurological in-patient department.

Correlation of increasing of encephalopathy and substances absorbed by the bloodstream

from the intestines was revealed. Whatsubstances that are created in the intestines can

cause endotoxemia?

A Indole

B Butyrate

C Acetacetate

D Biotin

E Ornithine


Examination of a patient suffering from cancer of urinary bladder revealed high rate of

serotonin and hydroxyanthranilic acid. It is caused by excess of the following amino acid in

the organism:

A Tryptophan

B Alanine

C Histidine

D Methionine

E Tyrosine


A mother consulted a doctor about her 5-year-old child who develops erythemas, vesicular

rash and skin itch under the influence of sun. Laboratory studies revealed decreased iron

concentration in the blood serum, increased uroporphyrinogen I excretion with the urine.

What is the most likely inherited pathology in this child?

A Erythropoietic porphyria

B Methemoglobinemia

C Hepatic porphyria

D Coproporphyria

E Intermittent porphyria


A 3 year old child with fever was given aspirin. It resulted in intensified erythrocyte

haemolysis. Hemolytic anemia might have been caused by congenital insufficiency of the

following enzyme:

A Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase

B Glucose 6-phosphatase

C Glycogen phosphorylase

D Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase

E $\gamma$-glutamiltransferase


Blood of a 12 year old boy presents low concentration of uric acid and accumulation of

xanthine and hypoxanthine. This child has genetic defect of the following enzyme:

A Xanthine oxidase

B Arginase

C Urease

D Ornithine carbamoyltransferase

E Glycerylkinase


Increased amount of free fat acids is observed in the blood of the patients with diabetes

mellitus. It can be caused by:

A Increased activity of triglyceridelipase adipocytes

B Storage of palmitatoil-CoA

C Activation of the ketone bodies utilization

D Activation of the synthesis of the apolipoproteins

E Decreased activity of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-acyltransferase blood plasma


A patient is ill with diabetes mellitus that is accompanied by hyperglycemia of over 7,2

millimole/l on an empty stomach. The level of what blood plasma protein allows to estimate

the glycemia rate retrospectively (4-8 weeks before examination)?

A Glycated hemoglobin

B Albumin

C Fibrinogen

D C-reactive protein

E Ceruloplasmin


In case of enterobiasis acrihine - the structural analogue of vitamin $B_2$ - is

administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in


A FAD-dependent dehydrogenases

B Cytochromeoxidases

C Peptidases

D NAD-dependet dehydrogenases

E Aminotransferases


A 10-year-old girl often experiences acute respiratory infections with multiple spotty

haemorrages in the places of clothes friction. Hypovitaminosis of what vitamin is present at

the girl?


B $В_6$

C $В_1$


E $В_2$


Hydroxylation of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics requires a donor of protons.

Which of the following vitamins can play this role?

A Vitamin C

B Vitamin P

C Vitamin $B_6$

D Vitamin E

E Vitamin A


The formation of a secondary mediator is obligatory in membrane-intracellular mechanism

of hormone action. Point out the substance that is unable to be a secondary mediator:

A Glycerol

B Diacylglycerol

C Inositol-3,4,5-triphosphate


E $Ca^{2+}$


A 4 y.o. child with signs of durative proteinic starvation was admitted to the hospital. The

signs were as follows: growth inhibition, anemia, edemata, mental deficiency. Choose a

cause of edemata development:

A Reduced synthesis of albumins

B Reduced synthesis of globulins

C Reduced synthesis of hemoglobin

D Reduced synthesis of lipoproteins

E Reduced synthesis of glycoproteins


Researchers isolated 5 isoenzymic forms of lactate dehydrogenase from the human blood

serum and studied their properties. What property indicates that the isoenzymic forms were

isolated from the same enzyme?

A Catalyzation of the same reaction

B The same molecular weight

C The same physicochemical properties

D Tissue localization

E The same electrophoretic mobility


On some diseases it is observed aldosteronism with hypertension and edema due to

sodium retention in the organism. What organ of the internal secretion is affected on


A Adrenal glands

B Testicle

C Ovaries

D Pancreas

E Hypophysis


An experiment proved that UV-radiated cells of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum

restore the native DNA structure slower than cells of healthy individuals as a result of

reparation enzyme defection. What enzyme helps this process?

A Endonuclease

B RNA ligase

C Primase

D DNA polymerase III

E DNA gyirase


A patient with suspicion on epidemic typhus was admitted to the hospital. Some arachnids

and insects have been found in his flat. Which of them may be a carrier of the pathogen of

epidemic typhus?

A Lice

B Spiders

C Bed-bugs

D Cockroaches

E Houseflies


A businessman came to India from South America. On examination the physician found that

the patient was suffering from sleeping-sickness. What was the way of invasion?

A As a result of bug's bites

B As a result of mosquito's bites

C With contaminated fruits and vegetables

D Through dirty hands

E After contact with a sick dogs


Tere is observed inhibited fibrillation in the patients with bile ducts obstruction, bleeding

due to low level of absorbtion of some vitamin. What vitamin is in deficit?





E Carotene


A 52 year-old patient with bronchial asthma was treated with glucocorticoids. Fever

reaction appeared as a result of postinjective abscess. The patient had subfebrile

temperature, which didn’t correspond to latitude and severity of inflammatory process. Why

did patient have low fever reaction?

A Inhibited endogen pyrogens production

B Violation of heat loss through lungs

C Inflammatory barrier formation in injection place

D Violation of heat-producing mechanisms

E Thermoregulation center inhibition


A 35-year-old man under the treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis has acute-onset of right

big toe pain, swelling, and low-grade fever. The gouty arthritis was diagnosed and high

serum uric acid level was found. Which of the following antituberculosis drugs are known

for causing high uric acid levels?

A Pyrazinamide

B Cycloserine

C Thiacetazone

D Rifampicin

E Aminosalicylic acid


During metabolic process active forms of the oxygen including superoxide anion radical are

formed in the human body. With help of what enzyme is this anion activated?

A Superoxide dismutase

B Catalase

C Peroxidase

D Glutathioneperoxidase

E Glutathionereductase


A patient presents high activity of $LDH_{1,2}$, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine

phosphokinase. In what organ (organs) is the development of a pathological process the

most probable?

A In the heart muscle (initial stage of myocardium infarction)

B In skeletal muscles (dystrophy, atrophy)

C In kidneys and adrenals

D In connective tissue

E In liver and kidneys


Buffer capacity of blood was decreased in the worker due to exhausting muscular work.

Entry of what acid substance to the blood can this state be explained?

A Lactate

B Pyruvate

C 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

D $\alpha$-ketoglutarate

E 3-phosphoglycerate


While examining the child the doctor revealed symmetric cheeks roughness, diarrhea,

disfunction of the nervous system. Lack of what food components caused it?

A Nicotinic acid, tryptophane

B Lysine, ascorbic acid

C Threonine, pantothenic acid

D Methionine, lipoic acid

E Phenylalanine, pangamic acid


A13-year-old boy complains of general weakness, dizziness, tiredness. He is mentally

retarded. Increased level of valine, isoleucine, leucine is in the blood and urine. Urine has

specific smell. What is the diagnosis?

A Maple syrup urine disease

B Addison's disease

C Tyrosinosis

D Histidinemia

E Graves' disease


Increased breaking of vessels, enamel and dentine destruction in scurvy patients are

caused by disorder of collagen maturing. What stage of modification of procollagen is

disordered in this avitaminosis?

A Hydroxylation of proline

B Formation of polypeptide chains

C Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues

D Removal of C-ended peptide from procollagen

E Detaching of N-ended peptide


A 62-year-old female patient has developed a cataract (lenticular opacity) secondary to the

diabetes mellitus. What type of protein modification is observed in case of diabetic


A Glycosylation

B Phosphorylation

C ADP-ribosylation

D Methylation

E Limited proteolysis


Aspirin has antiinflammatory effect due to inhibition of the cyclooxygenase activity. Level of

what biological active acids will decrease?

A Prostaglandins

B Leucotriens

C Catecholamines

D Biogenic amines

E Iodinethyronyns


The B cells of endocrine portion of pancreas are selectively damaged by alloxan poisoning.

How will it be reflected in blood plasma?

A The content of sugar increases

B The content of fibrinogen decrease

C The level of sugar decreases

D The content of globulins decreases

E The content of albumins decreases


At the aboratory experiment the eukocyte culture was mixed with staphylococci. Neutrophile

leukocytes engulfed and digested bacterial cells. This processes are termed:

A Phagocytosis

B Pinocytosis

C Diffusion

D Facilitated diffusion

E Osmosis


Examination of a patient revealed typical presentations of collagenosis. This pathology is

characterized by increase of the following urine index:

A Hydroxyproline

B Arginine

C Glucose

D Mineral salts

E Ammonium salts


Marked increase of activity of МВ-forms of CPK (creatinephosphokinase) and LDH-1 were

revealed on the examination of the patient's blood. What is the most likely pathology?

A Miocardial infarction

B Hepatitis

C Rheumatism

D Pancreatitis

E Cholecystitis


Untrained people often have muscle pain after sprints as a result of lactate accumulation.

This might be caused by intensification of the following biochemical process:

A Glycolysis

B Gluconeogenesis

C Pentose phosphate pathway

D Lipogenesis

E Glycogenesis


A 16-year-old boy was performed an appendectomy. He has been hospitalized for right

lower quadrant abdominal pain within 18 hours. The surgical specimen is edematous and

erythematous. Infiltration by what of the following cells is the most typical for the process

occuring here?

A Neutrophils

B Eosinophils

C Basophils

D Limphocytes

E Monocytes


ATP synthesis is totaly blocked in a cell. How will the value of membrane rest potential


A It will disappear

B It will be slightly increased

C It will be considerably increased

D First it will increase, then decrease

E First it will decrease, then increase


The concentration of albumins in human blood sample is lower than normal. This leads to

edema of tissues. What blood function is damaged?

A Maintaining the oncotic blood pressure

B Maintaining the Ph level

C Maintaining the body temperature

D Maintaining the blood sedimentation system

E All answers are correct


Examination of a patient suffering from frequent haemorrhages in the inner organs and

mucous membranes revealed proline and lysine being included in collagen fibers.

Impairment of their hydroxylation is caused by lack of the following vitamin:







A 20 year old patient complains of general weakness, dizziness, quick fatigability. Blood

analysis results: Hb- 80 g/l. Microscopical examination results: erythrocytes are of modified

form. This condition might be caused by:

A Sickle-cell anemia

B Hepatocellular jaundice

C Acute intermittent porphyria

D Obturative jaundice

E Addison's disease

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