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5. 0 Біохімія 1

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The greater amount of nitrogen is excreted from the organism in form of urea. Inhibition of

urea synthesis and accumulation of ammonia in blood and tissues are induced by the

decreased activity of the following liver enzyme:

A Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase

B Aspartate aminotransferase

C Urease

D Amylase

E Pepsin


A 35 y.o. patient who often consumes alcohol was treated with diuretics. There appeared

serious muscle and heart weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, AP- 100/60 mm Hg, depression.

This condition is caused by intensified excretion with urine of:

A Potassium

B Sodium

C Chlorine

D Calcium

E Phosphates


After intake of rich food a patient feels nausea and sluggishness; with time there appeared

signs of steatorrhea. Blood cholesterine concentration is 9,2 micromole/l. This condition

was caused by lack of:

A Bile acids

B Triglycerides

C Fatty acids

D Phospholipids

E Chylomicrons


Examination of a man who hadn't been consuming fats but had been getting enough

carbohydrates and proteins for a long time revealed dermatitis, poor wound healing, vision

impairment. What is the probable cause of metabolic disorder?

A Lack of linoleic acid, vitamins $A$, $D$, $E$, $K$

B Lack of palmitic acid

C Lack of vitamins $PP$, $H$

D Low caloric value of diet

E Lack of oleic acid


A 44-year-old woman complains of common weakness, heart pain, considerable increase

of body weigt. Objectively: moon-like face, hirsutism, AP- 165/100 mm Hg, height - 164 cm,

weight - 103 kg; fat is mostly accumulated in the region of neck, upper shoulder girdle,

stomach. What is the main pathogenetic mechanism of obesity?

A Increased production of glucocorticoids

B Decreased production of thyroidal hormones

C Increased production of insulin

D Decreased production of glucagon

E Increased production of mineralocorticoids


An experimental animal has been given excessive amount of carbon-labeled glucose for a

week. What compound can the label be found in?

A Palmitic acid

B Methionine

C Vitamin $A$

D Choline

E Arachidonic acid


After a serious viral infection a 3-year-old child has repeated vomiting, loss of

consciousness, convulsions. Examination revealed hyperammoniemia. What may have

caused changes of biochemical blood indices of this child?

A Disorder of ammonia neutralization in ornithinic cycle

B Activated processes of aminoacids decarboxylation

C Disorder of biogenic amines neutralization

D Increased purtefaction of proteins in intestines

E Inhibited activity of transamination enzymes


Examination of a patient with frequent hemorrhages from internals and mucous membranes

revealed proline and lysine being a part of collagene fibers. What vitamin absence caused

disturbance of their hydroxylation?

A Vitamin $C$

B Vitamin $K$

C Vitamin $A$

D Thiamine

E Vitamin $E$


Albinos can't stand sun impact - they don't aquire sun-tan but get sunburns. Disturbed

metabolism of what aminoacid underlies this phenomenon?

A Phenilalanine

B Methionine

C Tryptophan

D Glutamic acid

E Histidine


A patient with continious bronchopneumonia was admitted to the therapeutic department.

Antibiotic therapy didn't give much effect. What medication for improvement of immune

state should be added to the complex treatment of this patient?

A Timaline

B Analgin

C Sulfocamphocaine

D Benadryl

E Paracetamol


A patient suffers from hepatic cirrhosis. Examination of which of the following substances

excreted by urine can characterize the state of antitoxic function of liver?

A Hippuric acid

B Ammonium salts

C Kreatinine

D Uric acid

E Aminoacids


Vitamin A together with specific cytoreceptors penetrates through the nuclear membranes,

induces transcription processes that stimulate growth and differentiation of cells. This

biological function is realized by the following form of vitamin A:

A Trans-retinoic acid

B Trans-retinal

C Cis-retinal

D Retinol

E Carotin


Products of some proteins hydrolysis and modification are the biologically active

substances called hormones. Lipotropin, corticotropin, melanotropin and endorphins are

synthesized in the hypophysis of the following protein:

A Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)

B Neuroalbumin

C Neurostromin

D Neuroglobulin

E Thyreoglobulin


In patients with the biliary tract obstruction the blood coagulation is inhibited; the patients

have frequent haemorrhages caused by the subnormal assimilation of the following vitamin:

A $K$

B $A$

C $D$

D $E$

E $C$


The study of the genealogy of a family with hypertrichosis (helix excessive pilosis) has

demonstrated that this symptom is manifested in all generations only in men and is

inherited by son from his father. What is the type of hypertrichosis inheritance?

A Y-linked chromosome

B Autosome-recessive

C Autosome-dominant

D X-linked recessive chromosome

E X-linked dominant chromosome


A newborn child suffers from milk curdling in stomach, this means that soluble milk proteins

(caseins) transform to insoluble proteins (paracaseins) by means of calcium ions and a

certain enzyme. What enzyme takes part in this process?

A Renin

B Pepsin

C Gastrin

D Secretin

E Lipase


The penetration of the irritable cell membrane for potassium ions has been increased

during an experiment. What changes of membrane electric status can occur?

A Hyperpolarization

B Depolarization

C Action potential

D Local response

E No changes


A sportsman was recommended to take a medication that contains carnitine in order to

improve his results. What process is activated by carnitine the most?

A Fatty acids transport to mitochondrions

B Synthesis of steroid hormones

C Synthesis of ketone bodies

D Synyhesis of lipids

E Tissue respiration


To prevent postoperative bleeding a 6 y.o. child was administered vicasol that is a

synthetic analogue of vitamin $K$. Name post-translational changes of blood coagulation

factors that will be activated by vicasol:

A Carboxylation of glutamin acid

B Phosphorylation of serine radicals

C Partial proteolysis

D Polymerization

E Glycosylation


A 4 y.o. boy has had recently serious viral hepatitis. Now there are such clinical

presentations as vomiting, loss of consciousness, convulsions. Blood analysis revealed

hyperammoniemia. Disturbunce of which biochemical process caused such pathological

condition of the patient?

A Disturbed neutralization of ammonia in liver

B Disturbed neutralization of biogenic amines

C Increased putrefaction of proteins in bowels

D Activation of aminoacid decarboxylation

E Inhibition of transamination enzyms


During examination of an 11-month-old infant a pediatrician revealed osteoectasia of the

lower extremities and delayed mineralization of cranial bones. Such pathology is usually

provoked by the deficit of the following vitamin:

A Cholecalciferol

B Thiamin

C Pantothenic acid

D Bioflavonoids

E Riboflavin


Examination of a patient suffering from chronic hepatitis revealed a significant decrease in

the synthesis and secretion of bile acids. What process will be mainly disturbed in the

patient’s bowels?

A Fat emulsification

B Protein digestion

C Carbohydrate digestion

D Glycerin absorption

E Amino acid absorption


The energy inputs of a healthy man have been measured. In what position was the patient

if his energy inputs were less than the main exchange?

A Sleep

B Rest

C Easy work

D Nervous exertion

E Calmness


Glutamate decarboxylation results in formation of inhibitory transmitter in CNS. Name it:


B Glutathione

C Histamine

D Serotonin

E Asparagine


In course of histidine catabolism a biogenic amin is formed that has powerful vasodilatating

effect. Name it:

A Histamine

B Serotonin

C Dioxyphenylalanine

D Noradrenalin

E Dopamine


Utilization of arachidonic acid via cyclooxigenase pathway results in formation of some

bioactive substances. Name them:

A Prostaglandins

B Thyroxine

C Biogenic amins

D Somatomedins

E Insulin-like growth factors


After a sprint an untrained person develops muscle hypoxia. This leads to the accumulation

of the following metabolite in muscles:

A Lactate

B Ketone bodies

C Acetyl CoA

D Glucose 6-phosphate

E Oxaloacetate


Myocyte cytoplasm contains a big number of dissolved metabolites of glucose oxidation.

Name one of them that turns directly into a lactate:

A Pyruvate

B Oxaloacetate

C Glycerophosphate

D Glucose 6-phosphate

E Fructose 6-phosphate


Emotional stress causes activation of hormon-sensitive triglyceride lipase in the adipocytes.

What secondary mediator takes part in this process?

A Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

B Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

C Adenosine monophosphate

D Diacylglycerol

E Ions of $Са^{2+}$


A patient diagnosed with carcinoid of bowels was admitted to the hospital. Analysis

revealed high production of serotonin. It is known that this substance is formed of

tryptophane aminooacid. What biochemical mechanism underlies this process?

A Decarboxylation

B Desamination

C Microsomal oxydation

D Transamination

E Formation of paired compounds


A genetics specialist analyzed the genealogy of a family and found that both males and

females may have the illness, not across all the generations, and that healthy parents may

have ill children. What is the type of illness inheritance?

A Autosomal recessive

B Autosomal dominant

C X-linked dominant

D X-linked recessive

E Y-linked


Analysis of amniotic fluid that was obtained as a result of amniocentesis (puncture of

amniotic sac) revealed cells the nuclei of which contain sex chromatin (Barr's body). What

can it be evidence of?

A Development of female fetus

B Development of male fetus

C Genetic disorders of fetus development

D Trisomy

E Polyploidy


Vitamin $B_1$ deficiency results in disturbance of oxidative decarboxylation of

$\alpha$-ketoglutaric acid. This will disturb synthesis of the following coenzyme:

A Thiamine pyrophosphate

B Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)

C Flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

D Lipoic acid

E Coenzyme A


A child's blood presents high content of galactose, glucose concentration is low. There are

such presentations as cataract, mental deficiency, adipose degeneration of liver. What

disease is it?

A Galactosemia

B Diabetes mellitus

C Lactosemia

D Steroid diabetes

E Fructosemia


According to clinical indications a patient was administered pyridoxal phosphate. What

processes is this medication intended to correct?

A Transamination and decarboxylation of aminoacids

B Oxidative decarboxylation of ketonic acids

C Desamination of purine nucleotide

D Synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases

E Protein synthesis


A 45 y.o. woman suffers from Cushing's syndrome - steroid diabetes. Biochemical

examination revealed: hyperglycemia, hypochloremia. Which of the under-mentioned

processes is the first to be activated?

A Gluconeogenesis

B Glycogenolysis

C Glucose reabsorption

D Glucose transport to the cell

E Glycolysis


Autopsy of a 46-year-old man revealed multiple brown-and-green layers and

hemmorhages on the mucous membrane of rectum and sigmoid colon; slime and some

blood in colon lumen; histologically - fibrinous colitis. In course of bacteriological analysis of

colon contents $S.Sonne$ were found. What is the most probable diagnosis?

A Dysentery

B Cholera

C Salmonellosis

D Yersiniosis

E Crohn's disease


A patient had been ill with bronchial asthma for many years and died from asthmatic fit.

Histologic lung examination revealed: lumen of bronchioles and small bronches contain a

lot of mucus with some eosinophils, there is sclerosis of alveolar septums, dilatation of

alveole lumen. What mechanism of development of hypersensibility reaction took place?

A Reagin reaction

B Cytotoxic reaction

C Immunocomplex reaction

D Cytolysis determined by lymphocytes

E Granulomatosis


Desulfiram is widely used in medical practice to prevent alcocholism. It inhibits aldehyde

dehydrogenase. Increased level of what metabolite causes aversion to alcochol?

A Acetaldehyde

B Ethanol

C Malonyl aldehyde

D Propionic aldehyde

E Methanol


A 1-year-old child with symptoms of muscle involvement was admitted to the hospital.

Examination revealed carnitine deficiency in his muscles. What process disturbance is the

biochemical basis of this pathology?

A Transporting of fatty acids to mitochodrions

B Regulation of $Ca^{2+}$ level in mitochondrions

C Substrate phosphorylation

D Lactic acid utilization

E Actin and myosin synthesis


The patient with complaints of permanent thirst applied to the doctor. Hyperglycemia,

polyuria and increased concentration of 17-ketosteroids in the urine were revealed. What

disease is the most likely?

A Steroid diabetes

B Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

C Myxoedema

D Type I glycogenosis

E Addison's disease


Index of pH of the blood changed and became 7,3 in the patient with diabetus mellitus.

Detecting of the components of what buffer system is used while diagnosing disorder of

the acid-base equilibrium?

A Bicarbonate

B Phosphate

C Hemoglobin

D Oxyhemoglobin

E Protein


As a result of posttranslative modifications some proteins taking part in blood coagulation,

particularly prothrombin, become capable of calcium binding. The following vitamin takes

part in this process:

A $K$

B $C$

C $A$

D $B_1$

E $B_2$


Objective examination of a patient revealed: slender figure, big skull, highly developed

frontal region of face, short extremities. What constitutional type is it characteristic for?

A Respiratory

B Muscular

C Digestive

D Cerebral

E Mixed


A 38-year-old patient died during intractable attack of bronchial asthma. Histologic

examination revealed mucus accumulation in bronchial lumen, a lot of fat cells (labrocytes)

in the wall of bronches, many of them are in the state of degranulation, there are also a lot

of eosinophils. What pathogenesis of bronchial changes is it?

A Atopy

B Cytotoxic, cytolytic action of antibodies

C Immunocomplex mechanism

D Cellular cytolysis

E Granulomatosis

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