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Diabetes mellitus causes ketosis as a result of activated oxidation of fatty acids. What

disorders of acid-base equilibrium may be caused by excessive accumulation of ketone

bodies in blood?

A Metabolic acidosis

B Metabolic alcalosis

C Any changes woun't happen

D Respiratory acidosis

E Respiratory alcalosis


A woman with 0 (I) bllod group has born a child with AB blood group. This woman's

husband has A blood group. What genetic interaction explains this phenomenon?

A Recessive epistasis

B Codominance

C Polymery

D Incomplete dominance

E Complementation


Depressions and emotional insanities result from the deficit of noradrenalin, serotonin and

other biogenic amines in the brain. Their concentration in the synapses can be increased

by means of the antidepressants that inhibit the following enzyme:

A Monoamine oxidase

B Diamine oxidase

C L-amino-acid oxidase

D D-amino-acid oxidase

E Phenylalanine-4-monooxygenase


A 3 year old child with symptoms of stomatitis, gingivitis and dermatitis of open skin areas

was delivered to a hospital. Examination revealed inherited disturbance of neutral amino

acid transporting in the bowels. These symptoms were caused by the deficiency of the

following vitamin:

A Niacin

B Pantothenic acid

C Vitamin A

D Cobalamin

E Biotin


During hypersensitivity test a patient got subcutaneous injection of an antigen which

caused reddening of skin, edema, pain as a result of histamine action. This biogenic amine

is generated as a result of transformation of the following histidine amino acid:

A Decarboxylation

B Methylation

C Phosphorylation

D Isomerization

E Deaminization


A patient with suspected diagnosis "progressing muscular dystrophy" got his urine tested.

What compound will confirm this diagnosis if found in urine?

A Kreatine

B Collagen

C Porphyrin

D Myoglobin

E Calmodulin


A patient complained about dizziness, memory impairment, periodical convulsions. It was

revealed that these changes were caused by a product of decarboxylation of glutamic acid.

Name this product:


B Pyridoxal phosphate





A sportsman needs to improve his sporting results. He was recommended to take a

preparation that contains carnitine. What process is activated the most by this compound?

A Fatty acids transporting

B Amino acids transporting

C Calcium ions transporting

D Glucose transporting

E Vitamin K transporting


A doctor examined a child and revealed symptoms of rachitis. Development of this desease

was caused by deficiency of the following compound:

A 1,25 [ОН]-dichydroxycholecalciferol

B Biotin

C Tocopherol

D Naphtaquinone

E Retinol


Laboratory examination of a child revealed increased concentration of leucine, valine,

isoleucine and their ketoderivatives in blood and urine. Urine smelt of maple syrup. This

disease is characterized by the deficit of the following enzyme:

A Dehydrogenase of branched amino acids

B Aminotransferase

C Glucose-6-phosphatase

D Phosphofructokinase

E Phosphofructomutase


A 9-month-old infant is fed with artificial formulas with unbalanced vitamin $B_6$

concentration. The infant presents with pellagral dermatitis, convulsions, anaemia.

Convulsion development might be caused by the disturbed formation of:


B Histamine

C Serotonin


E Dopamine


It was found out that some compounds, for instance fungi toxins and some antibiotics can

inhibit activity of $RNA$-polymerase. What process will be disturbed in a cell in case of

inhibition of this enzyme?

A Transcription

B Processing

C Replication

D Translation

E Reparation


When blood circulation in the damaged tissue is restored, then lactate accumulation comes

to a stop and glucose consumption decelerates. These metabolic changes are caused by

activation of the following process:

A Aerobic glycolysis

B Anaerobic glycolysis

C Lipolysis

D Gluconeogenesis

E Glycogen biosynthesis


During starvation muscle proteins break up into free amino acids. These compounds will be

the most probably involved into the following process:

A Gluconeogenesis in liver

B Gluconeogenesis in muscles

C Synthesis of higher fatty acids

D Glycogenolysis

E Decarboxylation


Surgical removal of a part of stomach resulted in disturbed absorption of vitamin $B_{12}$,

it is excreted with feces. The patient was diagnosed with anemia. What factor is necessary

for absorption of this vitamin?

A Gastromucoprotein

B Gastrin

C Hydrochloric acid

D Pepsin

E Folic acid


A newborn develops dyspepsia after the milk feeding. When the milk is substituted by the

glucose solution the dyspepsia symptoms disappear. The newborn has the subnormal

activity of the following enzyme:

A Lactase

B Invertase

C Maltase

D Amylase

E Isomaltase


Patients who suffer from severe diabetes and don't receive insulin have metabolic acidosis.

This is caused by increased concentration of the following metabolites:

A Ketone bodies

B Fatty acids

C Unsaturated fatty acids

D Triacylglycerols

E Cholesterol


A 4 year old child with hereditary renal lesion has signs of rickets, vitamin D concentration

in blood is normal. What is the most probable cause of rickets development?

A Impaired synthesis of calcitriol

B Increased excretion of calcium

C Hyperfunction of parathyroid glands

D Hypofunction of parathyroid glands

E Lack of calcium in food


A 6 year old child was delivered to a hospital. Examination revealed that the child couldn't

fix his eyes, didn't keep his eyes on toys, eye ground had the cherry-red spot sign.

Laboratory analyses showed that brain, liver and spleen had high rate of ganglioside

glycometide. What congenital disease is the child ill with?

A Tay-Sachs disease

B Wilson's syndrome

C Turner's syndrome

D Niemann-Pick disease

E MacArdle disease


In clinical practice tuberculosis is treated with izoniazid preparation - that is an antivitamin

able to penetrate into the tuberculosis bacillus. Tuberculostatic effect is induced by the

interference with replication processes and oxidation-reduction reactions due to the buildup

of pseudo-coenzyme:







A newborn child was found to have reduced intensity of sucking, frequent vomiting,

hypotonia. Urine and blood exhibit increased concentration of citrulline. What metabolic

process is disturbed?

A Ornithinic cycle

B Tricarboxylic acid cycle

C Glycolysis

D Glyconeogenesis

E Cori cycle


Dietary intake of a 30 year old nursing woman contains 1000 mg of calcium, 1300 mg of

phosphorus and 20 mg of iron per day. It is necessary to change content of these mineral

substances in the following way:

A To increase phosphorus content

B To increase calcium content

C To reduce fluorine content

D To increase iron content

E To reduce iron content


Cardinal symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism are osteoporosis and renal lesion along

with development of urolithiasis. What substance makes up the basis of these calculi in

this disease?

A Calcium phosphate

B Uric acid

C Cystine

D Bilirubin

E Cholesterol


Study of conversion of a food colouring agent revealed that neutralization of this xenobiotic

takes place only in one phase - microsomal oxydation. Name a component of this phase:

A Cytochrome Р-450

B Cytochrome B

C Cytochrome C

D Cytochrome A

E Cytochrome oxidase


A patient had hemorrhagic stroke. Blood examination revealed strengthened kinin

concentration.The patient was prescribed contrical. It was administered in order to inhibit

the following proteinase:

A Kallikrein

B Pepsin

C Trypsin

D Chemotrypsin

E Collagenase


A 49-year-old driver complains about unbearable constricting pain behind the breastbone

irradiating to the neck. The pain arose 2 hours ago. Objectively: the patient’s condition is

grave, he is pale, heart tones are decreased. Laboratory studies revealed high activity of

creatine kinase and $LDH_1$. What disease are these symptoms typical for?

A Acute myocardial infarction

B Acute pancreatitis

C Stenocardia

D Cholelithiasis

E Diabetes mellitus


Plasmic factors of blood coagulation are exposed to post-translational modification with the

participation of vitamin $K$. It is necessary as a cofactor in the enzyme system of

$\gamma$-carboxylation of protein factors of blood coagulation due to the increased

affinity of their molecules with calcium ions. What amino acid is carboxylated in these


A Glutamic

B Valine

C Serine

D Phenylalanine

E Arginine


Pharmacological effects of antidepressants are connected with inhibition of an enzyme

catalyzing biogenic amines noradrenaline and serotonine in the mitochondrions of cerebral

neurons. What enzyme participates in this process?

A Monoamine oxidase

B Transaminase

C Decarboxylase

D Peptidase

E Lyase


An oncological patient was prescribed methotrexate. With the lapse of time target cells of

the tumour lost susceptibility to this drug. There is change of gene expression of the

folowing enzyme:

A Dehydrofolate reductase

B Thiaminase

C Deaminase

D Folate oxidase

E Folate decarboxylase
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