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7.0 Патологічна анатомія


Multiple oval ulcers along the intestine were revealed on autopsy of the person, who died

from diffuse of peritonitis in the distant part of the small intestine. Bottom parts of the

ulcers are clear, smooth, formed with muscular or serous covering, edges of ulcers are

flat, rounded. There are perforations up to 0,5 cm in diameter in two ulcers. What diseasis

can be diagnosed?

A Typhoid fever

B Dysentery

C Cholera

D Tuberculosis

E Typhus


Patient suffering from trombophlebitis of the deep veins suddenly died. Autopsy has shown

freely lying red friable masses with dim crimped surface in the trunk and bifurcation of the

pulmonary artery. What pathologic process was revealed by morbid anatomist?

A Tromboembolism

B Thrombosis

C Tissue embolism

D Embolism with foreign body

E Fat embolism


Examination of a patient revealed a dense, movable skin tumour that is standing out

distinctly from the surrounding tissues. Its section is found to be white and composed of

fibrous tissue. Microscopic examination revealed interlacing collagen fibers and few cells.

What tumour is it?

A Fibroma

B Myoma

C Histiocytoma

D Dermatofibroma

E Desmoid


A 50-year-old man has felt vague abdominal discomfort within past 4 months. Physical

examination revealed no lymphadenopathy, and no abdominal masses or organomegaly at

palpation. Bowel sounds are heard. An abdominal CT scan shows a 20 cm retroperitoneal

soft tissue mass obscuring the left psoas muscle. A stool specimen tested for occult blood

is negative. Which of the following neoplasms is this man most likely to have?

A Lipoma

B Melanoma

C Hamartoma

D Adenocarcinoma

E Lymphoma


A 40-year-old woman has had a feeling of abdominal discomfort for the past 8 months. On

pelvic examination, there is the right adnexal mass. Abdominal CT scan demonstrates a 7

cm cystic mass involving the right ovary with small areas of calcification. The uterus is

normal in size. The right fallopian tube and ovary have been removed surgically. Grossly,

the mass on sectioning is filled with abundant hair and sebum. Microscopically, the mass

has glandular spaces lined by columnar epithelium, squamous epithelium with hair follicles,

cartilage, and dense connective tissue. What type of tumour is it?

A Teratoma

B Squamous cell carcinoma of ovary

C Melanoma

D Sarcoma of ovary

E Metastase of cervical carcinoma


A man died 8 days after the beginning of the disease. He was diagnosed with dysentery. At

the autopsy it was found out a thickened wall of the sigma and rectum, fibrinous membrane

on the surface of mucous membrane. Histologically: there is a deep necrosis of mucous

membrane with infiltration of necrotic masses with fibrin. What kind of colitis does

correspond to the changes?

A Diphtheritic

B Catarrhal

C Ulcerative

D Chronic

E Gangrenous


A woman suffering from dysfunctional metrorrhagia was made a diagnostic abortion.

Histologically in the scrape there were a lot of small stamped glandulars covered with

multirowed epithelium. The lumens of some glandulars were cystically extended. Choose

the variant of general pathologic process in the endometrium.

A Glandular-cystic hyperplasia of endometrium

B Atrophy of endometrium

C Metaplasia of endometrium

D Neoplasm of endometrium

E Hypertrophic growth


A 46 year-old man complains of difficult nose breathing. Mikulich cells, storage of

epithelioid cells, plasmocytes, lymphocytes, hyaline balls are discovered in the biopsy

material of the nose thickening. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A Scleroma

B Virus rhinitis

C Allergic rhinitis

D Rhinovirus infection

E Meningococcal nasopharyngitis


Extensive thromboembolic infarction of the left cerebral hemispheres, large septic spleen,

immunocomplex glomerulonephritis, ulcers on the edges of the aortic valves, covered with

polypous thrombus with colonies of staphylococcus were revealed on autopsy of the

young man who died in coma. What disease caused cerebral thromboemboly?

A Septic bacterial endocarditis

B Septicemia

C Acute rheumatic valvulitis

D Septicopyemia

E Rheumatic thromboendocarditis


A patient ill with diabetes mellitus felt acute pain in his right foot. Objectively: foot thumb is

black, foot tissues are edematous, there are foci of epidermis desquamation, stinking

discharges. What clinicopathological form of necrosis is it?

A Moist gangrene

B Bedsore

C Sequestrum

D Dry gangrene

E Infarction


A denaturation of proteins can be found in some substances. Specify the substance that is

used for the incomplete denaturation of hemoglobin:

A Urea

B Toluene

C Sulfuric acid

D Nitric acid

E Sodium hydroxide


During surgery in a 17-year-old patient it was revealed the tumour of 4,5х5,0х3,5 sm in

size on the lower surface of the liver with subserose localization, of dark-red color.

On the section tumour has cavities with marked amount of blood. What is preliminary


A Cavernous hemangioma

B Capillar hemangioma

C Hemangiopericytoma

D Hemangioendothelioma

E Lymphangioma


A sick man with high temperature and a lot of tiny wounds on the body has been admitted

to the hospital. Lice have been found in the folds of his clothing. What disease can be

suspected in the patient?

A Epidemic typhus

B Tularemia

C Scabies

D Malaria

E Plague


On autopsy it is revealed that kidneys are enlarged, surface is large-granular because of

multiple cavities with smooth wall, which are filled with clear fluid. What kidney disease did

the patient have?

A Polycystic kidney

B Necrotic nephrosis

C Pyelonephritis

D Glomerulonephritis

E Infarction


On autopsy it is revealed enlarged dense right lung, fibrin layers on the pleura. Lung

tissue is light green color on incision with muddy liqued exudates. What lung disease are

these symptoms typical for?

A Lung-fever

B Bronchopneumonia,

C Interstitial pneumonia

D Pulmonary gangreneі

E Fibrosing alveolitis


On autopsy it is revealed: soft arachnoid membrane of the upper parts of cerebral

hemisphere is plethoric, it is of yellowish-green color, soaked with purulent and fibrose

exudate, it lookes like cap. For what disease is it characteristical picture

A Meningococcal meningitis

B Tuberculous meningitis

C Influenza meningitis

D Meningitis at anthrax

E Meningitis at typhus


On autopsy of the 58-year-old man it is revealed: mitral valve is deformed, thickened, not

totally closed. Microscopically: centers of collagen fibers are eosinophilic, have positive

fibrin reaction. The most likely it is:

A Fibrinoid swelling

B Fibrinoid inflammation

C Mucoid swelling

D Hyalinosis

E Amyloidosis


Chronic inflammation and transformation of the one-layer ciliated epithelium into

multiple-layers flat epithelium was revealed in the thickened mucous membrane of the

bronchus bioptate of the patient with smoke abuse. Which of the processes is the most


A Metaplasia

B Hyperplasia of the epithelium

C Squamous cancer

D Leucoplacia

E Epithelium hypertrophy


For a long time a 49-year-old woman was suffering from glomerulonephritis which caused

death.On autopsy it was revealed that kidneys size was 7х3х2.5 sm, weight is 65,0 g, they

are dence and small-grained. Microscopically: fibrinogenous inflammation of serous and

mucous capsules, dystrophic changes of parenchymatous organs, brain edema. What

complication can cause such changes of serous capsules and inner organs?

A Uraemia

B Anemia

C Sepsis

D DIC-syndrome

E Thrombopenia


A patient died under conditions of cardiovascular insufficiency. Autopsy results:

postinfarction cardiosclerosis, myocardium hypertrophy and dilatation of its cavities,

especially of its right ventricle. Liver is enlarged, its surface is smooth, incision revealed

that it was plethoric, with dark-red specks against the background of brownish tissue.

Histologically: plethora of central parts of lobules; peritheral parts around portal tracts

contain hepatocytes in a state of adipose degeneration. How are these liver changes


A Nutmeg liver

B Pseudonutmeg liver

C Amyloidosis

D Liver cirrhosis

E Liver steatosis


A 59-year-old man has signs of the parenchymatous jaundice and portal hypertension. On

histological examination of the puncture of the liver bioptate, it was revealed: beam-lobule

structure is affected, part of hepatocytes has signs of fat dystrophy, port-portal connective

tissue septa with formation of pseudo-lobules,with periportal lympho-macrophage

infiltrations. What is the most probable diagnosis?

A Liver cirrhosis

B Alcohol hepatitis

C Chronic hepatosis

D Viral hepatitis

E Toxic dystrophy


On microscopic examination of the enlarged neck gland of a 14-year-old girl it was

revealed destruction of the tissue structure of the node, absence of the lymph follicles,

sclerotic and necrosis parts, cell constitution of the node is polymorphous, lymphocites,

eosinophiles, atypical cells of the large size with multiple-lobule nuclei

(Beresovsky-Shternberg cells) and onenucleus cells of the large size are present. What is

the most likely diagnosis?

A Lymphogranulomatous

B Acute lympholeucosis

C Chronic lympholeucosis

D Berkitt's lymphoma

E Fungous mycosis


A female patient suffering from bronchial asthma had got a viral infection that provoked

status asthmaticus with fatal outcome. Histological examination of lungs revealed spasm

and edema of bronchioles, apparent infiltration of their walls with lymphocytes, eosinophils

and other leukocytes; labrocyte degranulation. What mechanism of hypersensitivity

underlies the described alterations?

A Reagin reaction

B Inflammatory

C Autoimmune

D Immune complex

E Immune cytolysis


On autopsy of the 40-year-old woman suffering from rheumatic arthritis, the enlarged solid

spleen was revealed. On section its tissue is of the mahogany color with enlarged follicles,

which look like semi-transparent grayish-whitish grains. What pathological process is the

most likely?

A Sago spleen

B Glaze spleen

C Waxy spleen

D Hyaline spleen

E Porphyric spleen


Local lymphonodules enlarged near the infected wound. Increased amount of

macrophages, lymphocytes, lymphatic follicles in the cortical layer and large amount of

plasma cells were revealed on histological examination. What process in the lymphatic

nodules represent these histological changes?

A Antigen stimulation

B Acquired insufficiency of the lymphoid tissue

C Innate insufficiency of the lymphoid tissue

D Tumour transformation

E Hypersensibility reaction


On autopsy of the man with alcohol abuse for a long time it was revealed: dense,

small-knobby, small size liver. Microscopically: small pseudo-lobules, divided with thin

layers of connective tissue with lymphomacrophagial infiltrates; hepatocytes in the state of

globular fatty dystrophy. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A Alcohol cirrhosis

B Chronic active alcohol hepatitis

C Chronic persistent alcohol hepatitis

D Toxic liver dystrophy

E Fatty hepatosis


An 8-year-old child was admitted to the infectious department with fever (up to $38^oC$)

and punctuate bright-red skin rash. The child was diagnosed as having scarlet fever.

Objectively: mucous membrane of pharynx is apparently hyperaemic and edematic, the

tonsils are enlarged and have dull yellowish-grey foci with some black areas. What

inflammation is the reason for the pharynx alterations?

A Purulent necrotic

B Fibrinous

C Haemorrhagic

D Serous

E Catarrhal


A 30-year-old patient with bacteriologically proved dysentery developed the signs of

paraproctitis. What is the stage of local changes in this patient?

A Ulceration stage

B Fibrinous colitis

C Follicular colitis

D Catarrhal colitis

E Healing of the ulcers stage


A patient who has been abusing tobacco smoking for a long time has got cough

accompanied by excretion of viscous mucus; weakness after minor physical stress, pale

skin. The patient has also lost 12,0 kg of body weight. Endoscopic examination of biosy

material his illness was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Name a pathological

process that preceded formation of the tumour:

A Metaplasia

B Hypoplasia

C Hyperplasia

D Necrosis

E Sclerosis


Diagnostic scraping was performed to the woman with dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

Multiple convoluted glands, ganglially dilated cavities of some glands were revealed

histologically in the scrape. Name the type of general pathological process.

A Glandulo-gangliac hyperplasia

B Atrophy

C Metaplasia

D Displasia

E Hypertrophic excrescence


Tuberculine was injected intracutaneously to the child for tuberculin test. Marked

hyperemia, tissue infiltration developed on the place of injection in 24 hours. What

mechanism caused these modifications?

A Cells cytotoxity

B Reagin type cytotoxity

C Antibody cytotoxity

D Granuloma formation

E Immunocomplex cytotoxity


The intraoperational biopsy of mammal gland has revealed the signs of atypical tissue with

disorder of parenchyma stroma proportion with domination of the last, gland structures of

the different size and shape, lined with single-layer proliferative epithelium. What is the

most appropriate diagnosis?

A Fibroadenoma

B Papilloma

C Noninfiltrative cancer

D Infiltrative cancer

E Mastitis


Arterial hypertension, hyperglycemia, glucosuria were observed clinically for a long time in

the patient with upper type of obesity. Death was due to the cerebral haemorrhage.

Basophilic hypophysis adenoma, hyperplasia of adrenal gland cortex were revealed on

pathomorphological examination. What is the likely diagnosis?

A Cushing disease

B Diabetes mellitus

C Acromegaly

D Hypophysis nanism

E Adiposogenitalis dystrophy


On autopsy it was revealed: large (1-2 cm) brownish-red, easy crumbling formations

covering ulcerative defects on the external surface of the aortic valve. What is the most

likely diagnosis?

A Polypus-ulcerative endocarditis

B Recurrent warty endocarditis

C Acute warty endocarditis

D Fibroplastic endocarditis

E Diffusive endocarditis


Purulent endometritis with fatal outcome was progressing in the woman after abortion

performed not at the hospital. On autopsy multiple lung abscesses, subcapsule ulcers in

the kidneys, spleen hyperplasia were revealed. What form of sepsis developed in the


A Septopyemia

B Septicemia

C Chroniosepsis

D Lung sepsis

E Urosepsis


Autopsy of a 73-year-old man who had been suffering from the coronary heart disease

along with cardiac insufficiency for a long time revealed: nutmeg liver, brown induration of

lungs, cyanotic induration of kidneys and spleen. What kind of circulation disorder was the

cause of such effects?

A General chronic venous congestion

B Arterial hyperaemia

C General acute venous congestion

D Acute anaemia

E Chronic anaemia


A 22 year old patient from the West Ukraine complains of laboured nasal breathing.

Morphological examination of biopsy material of nasal mucous membrane revealed

lymphoid, epithelioid, plasma cells as well as Mikulicz's cells. What is the most probable


A Rhinoscleroma

B Glanders

C Tuberculosis

D Leprosy

E Syphilis

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