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4. 0 Нормальна фізіологія

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4.0 Нормальна фізіологія


Patient with hypersecretion of the gastric juices was recomended to exclude from the diet

concentrated bouillons and vegetable decoctions because of their stimulation of gastric

secretion. What is dominating mechanism of stimulation of secretion in this case?

A Stimulation of gastrin production by G-cells

B Irritation of taste receptors

C Irritation of mechanoreceptors of the oral cavity

D Irritation of mechanoreceptors of the stomach

E Stimulation of excretion of secretin in the duodenum


Person felt thirsty after staying in heat for a long time. Signals of what receptors caused it first

of all?

A Osmoreceptors of hypothalamus

B Sodium receptors of hypothalamus

C Osmoreceptorsof the liver

D Glucoreceptors of hypothalamus

E Baroreceptors of aortic arch


An individual is characterized by rounded face, broad forehead, a mongolian type of eyelid

fold, flattened nasal bridge, permanently open mouth, projecting lower lip, protruding tongue,

short neck, flat hands, and stubby fingers. What diagnosis can be put to the patient?

A Down's syndrome

B Klinefelter's syndrome

C Alkaptonuria

D Supermales

E Turner's syndrome


Purulent endometritis developed in a woman after delivery. Treating with antibiotics inhibitors

of murein synthesis was ineffective. Wide spectrum bactericidal antibiotic was administered

to her. In 6 hours temperature rapidly increased up to $40^0C$ with shiver. Muscle pains have

appeared. BP dropped down to 70/40 mmHg. Oligura has developed. What is the main

reason for the development of this condition?

A Endotoxic shock

B Toxic effect of preparation

C Internal bleeding

D Anaphylactic shock

E Bacteremia


Secretion of which gastrointestinal hormones is primerily decreased in patient with removed


A Cholecystokinin and secretin

B Gastrin

C Histamine

D Gastrin and histamine

E Neurotensin


A 2-year-old child experienced convulsions because of lowering calcium ions concentration in

the blood plasma. Function of what structure is decreased?

A Parathyroid glands

B Hypophysis

C Adrenal cortex

D Pineal gland

E Thymus


While emotional excitement the heart rate in a 30-year-old person run up to 112 Bpm. What

part of the conducting system of the heart caused it?

A Synoatrial node

B Purkinje's fibers

C His bundle branches

D Intraventricular node

E His bundle


Usage of oral contraceptives with sex hormones inhibits secretion of the hypophysiae

hormones. Secretion of which of the indicated hormones is inhibited while using oral

contraceptives with sex hormones?

A Follicle-stimulating

B Vasopressin

C Thyrotropic

D Somatotropic

E Oxytocin


During the breakout of acute respiratory infection in order to diagnose influenza the

express-diagnosis, based on revealing of specific viral antigen in the examined material

(nasopharyngial lavage), is carried out. Which reaction is used for this?

A Immunofluorescence

B Complement binding

C Agglutination

D Precipitation

E Opsonization


A 38-year-old woman was admitted to the admission-diagnostic department with uterine

bleeding. What are the most likely changes of blood?

A Reduction of haematocrite rate

B Increase of haematocrite rate

C Leukopenia

D Leucocytosis

E Polycythemia


Due to action of electric current on the exitable cell there appeared depolarization of it's

membrane. Movement of what ions through the membrane caused depolarisation?

A Na+


C Са2+

D Сl-

E К+


The high level of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes concentration showed the increase

of LDH-1 and LDH-2 in a patient’s blood plasma. Point out the most probable diagnosis:

A Myocardial infarction

B Skeletal muscle dystrophy

C Diabetes mellitus

D Viral hepatitis

E Acute pancreatitis


There is only one hormone among the neurohormones which refers to the derivatives of

amino acids according to classification. Point it out:

A Melatonin

B Thyroliberin

C Vasopressin

D Oxytocin

E Somatotropin


The sterile Petri dishes and pipettes are necessary to prepare for microbiological tests in

bacteriological laboratory. What way of sterilization should be applied in this case?

A Dry-heat sterilization

B Tyndallization

C Pasteurization

D Steam sterilization in autoclave

E Boiling


A patient after hypertension stroke does not have voluntary movements in his right arm and

leg with the increased muscle tone in these extremites. What type of disfunction of nervous

system is it?

A Central paralysis

B Peripheral paralysis

C Peripheral paresis

D Reflex paresis

E Central paresis


Blood analysis of a patient showed signs of HIV infection (human immunodeficiency virus).

Which cells does HIV-virus primarily affect?

A Cells that contain receptor T4 (T-helpers)

B Cells that contain receptor IgM (B-lymphocytes)

C Specialized nervous cells (neurons)

D Mast cells

E Proliferating cells (stem hematoplastic cells)


The preventive radioprotector was given to a worker of a nuclear power station. What

mechanism from the below mentioned is considered to be the main mechanism of


A Inhibition of free radicals formation

B Prevention of tissue’s hypoxia

C Activation of oxidation reactions

D Increasing of tissue blood supply

E Increasing of respiration


X-ray examination discovered lungs emphysema in the patient. What is the reason of short

breath development in this case?

A Decreased lungs elasticity

B Increased lungs elasticity

C Inhibition of respiratory center

D Excitation of respiratory center

E Decreasing of alveoli receptors sensitivity


On experiment on the dog the peripheral part of nervus vagus of the neck was irritated. What

changes of the heart function would be observed?

A Decreased contraction rate

B Increased contraction force

C Increased atrioventricular conduction

D Increased contraction force and rate

E Increased myocardial excitability


Power inputs of a boy increased from 500 to 2000 kJ pro hour. What can be the cause of it?

A Physical exercise

B Raise of outer temperatute

C Mental activity

D Food intake

E Transition from sleep to wakefulness


A student is thoroughly summarising a lecture. When his groupmates begin talking the quality

of the summarising worsens greatly. What type of inhibition in the cerebral cortex is the

cause of it?

A External

B Protective

C Dying

D Differential

E Delayed


In the experiment on the animal the part of the cerebral cortex hemispheres was removed. It

caused elimination of previously formed conditioned reflex to the light irritation. What part ot

the cortex was removed?

A Occipital cortex

B Precentral convolution

C Postcentral convolution

D Limbic cortex

E Temporal lobe


Inhibition of alpha-motoneuron of the extensor muscles was noticed after stimulation of

alpha-motoneuron of the flexor muscles during the experiment on the spinal column. What

type of inhibition can this process cause?

A Reciprocal

B Presynaptic

C Depolarizational

D Recurrent

E Lateral


Respiratory coefficient was studied in the patient who strictly kept certain diet for 10 days. It

was determined that it is 1. What diet does the patient follow?

A With domination of carbohydrates

B With domination of proteins and fat

C With domination of fat and carbohydrates

D Mixed

E With domination of proteins and carbohydrates


On blood grouping on the system ABO, standart serum of the I and II groups caused

erythrocytes agglutination of the examined blood and serum group of the III didn't. What

agglutinogens are in this erythrocytes?



C А and В


E D and C


Punctata hemorrhage was found out in the patient after application of a tourniquet. With

disfunction of what blood cells is it connected?

A Platelets

B Eosinophiles

C Monocytes

D Lymphocytes

E Neutrophiles


Students who are taking examinations often have dry mouth. The mechanism that causes

this state is the realization of the following reflexes:

A Conditioned sympathetic

B Unconditioned parasympathetic

C Conditioned parasympathetic

D Unconditioned sympathetic

E Unconditioned peripheral


Middle part of cochlear of internal ear was destroyed in animal while experiment. It will cause

abnormalities of the sound perception of the following frequencies:

A Middle

B Low

C High

D High and low

E No abnormalities


The person has decreased diuresis, hypernatremia, hypokalemia. Hypersecretion of what

hormon can cause such changes?

A Aldosterone

B Vasopressin

C Auricular sodiumuretic factor

D Adrenalin

E Parathormone


The temperature of the ambient environment is $38^oC$ and relative air humidity is 50\%.

What ways of heat emission provide maintaining a constant temperature of the human body?

A Evaporation

B Radiation

C Heat conduction

D Convection

E Convection and conduction


The minute blood volume in a patient with transplanted heart has increased as a result of

physical activity. What regulative mechanism is responsible for these changes?

A Catecholamines

B Sympathetic unconditioned reflexes

C Parasympathetic unconditioned reflexes

D Sympathetic conditioned reflexes

E Parasympathetic conditioned reflexes


Isolated muscle of a frog is rhythmically irritated with electric impulses. Every next impulse is

in a period of relaxation from the previus contraction. What contraction of the muscle


A Waved tetanus

B Single

C Asynchronous

D Continuous(smooth) tetanus

E Tonic


A man has normal sensitivity of his finger skin, however he doesn’t sense his wedding ring

around the finger. What process induced by wearing of the ring has caused this


A Receptor adaptation

B Development of the fibrous tissue

C Abnormality of the epidermis structure

D Impaired circulation

E Abnormality of the receptor structure


An aged man had raise of arterial pressure under a stress. It was caused by activation of:

A Sympathoadrenal system

B Parasympathetic nucleus of vagus

C Functions of thyroid gland

D Functions of adrenal cortex

E Hypophysis function


ECG study showed that the T-waves were positive in the standard extremity leads, their

amplitude and duration were normal. The right conclusion would be that the following

process runs normally in the heart ventricles:

A Repolarization

B Depolarization

C Excitement

D Contraction

E Relaxation


Blood minute volume of a 30 year old woman at rest is 5 l/m. What blood volume is pumped

through the pulmonary vessels per minute?

A 5 l

B 3,75 l

C 2,5 l

D 2,0 l

E 1,5 l


As a result of long-term starvation the glomerular filtration of a man was accelerated by 20\%.

The most probable cause of filtration changes under such conditions is:

A Fall of oncotic pressure of blood plasma

B Rise of systemic arterial pressure

C Increased permeability of renal filter

D Growth of filtration coefficient

E Increase of renal plasma flow


In course of an experiment a skeletal muscle is being stimulated by a series of electric

impulses. What type of muscle contraction will arise, if every subsequent impulse comes in

the period of shortening of the previous single muscle contraction?

A Holotetanus

B Partial tetanus

C Asynchronous tetanus

D A series of single contractions

E Muscle contracture


While shifting the gaze to the closely situated object the refracting power of eye's optical

mediums will increase by 10 diopters. It results from changing of such eye structure:

A Lens

B Cornea

C Vitreous body

D Liquid of the anterior chamber of eye

E Muscle that dilatates pupil


Spasm of smooth muscle of bronchi developed in the patient. Usage of activators of what

membrane cytoreceptors is fisiologically valid to decrease attack?

A $\beta$-adrenoreceptors

B $\alpha$-аdrenoreceptors

C $\alpha$- та $\beta$-аdrenoreceptors

D Н-cholinoreceptors

E М-cholinoreceptors


Intrapleural pressure is being measured in a person. In what phase has a person hold his

breath if the pressure is - 25 cm H2O?

A Speed up inspiration

B Calm expiration

C Calm inspiration

D Speed up expiration

E -


On examination of the person it was revealed that minute volume of heart is 3500mL, systolic

volume is 50 mL. What is the frequency of cardiac contraction?

A 70 bpm

B 60 bpm

C 50 bpm

D 80 bpm

E 90 bpm


Due to activation of ion channels of external membrane of excitable cell it's rest potential has

significantly increased. What channels were activated?

A Potassium channels

B Natrium channels

C Fast calcium channels

D Slow calcium channels

E Natrium and calcium channels


The ventral roots of 5 frontal segment of spinal cord were cut during experiment in the

animal. What changes will take place in the innervation region?

A Loss of movements

B Loss of touch sensitivity

C Loss of temperature sensitivity

D Loss of proprioceptive sensitivity

E Hypersensitivity


Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased for 20% due to prolonged starvation of the person.

The most likely cause of filtration changes under this conditions is:

A Decrease of oncotic pressure of blood plasma

B Increase of systemic blood pressure

C Increase of penetration of the renal filter

D Increase of filtration coefficient

E Increase of renal plasma stream


A patient has a transverse disruption of spinal cord below the IV thoracic segment. What

changes of respiration will it cause?

A Respiration will stay unchanged

B Respiration will stop

C Respiration will become less frequent

D Respiration will become deeper

E Respiration will become more frequent


Due to cranial trauma the patient developed the symptoms: intention tremor, dysmetry,

adiadochokinesis, dysarthria. What structure of the brain is injured?

A Cerebellum

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