Krok Medicine-2010 icon

Krok Medicine-2010

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Krok 1. Medicine-2010

1 Two hours after an exam a student had a blood count done and it was revealed that he had leukocytosis without significant leukogram modifications. What is the most probable mechanism of leukocytosis development?

A. Leukopoiesis intensification and deceleration of leukocyte lysis

B. Redistribution of leukocytes in the organism

C. Deceleration of leukocyte migration to the tissues

D. Deceleration of leukocyte lysis

E. Leukopoiesis intensification

2 A patient was stung by a be E. Examination revealed that his left hand was hot, pink, edematic, there was a big red blister on the site of sting. What is the leading mechanism of edema development?

A. Reduced vessel filling

B. Drop of osmotic pressure in tissue

C. Increased vessel permeability

D. Injury of vessels caused by the sting

E. Drop of oncotic pressure in tissue

3 A patient caught a cold after which there appeared facial expression disorder. He cannot close his eyes, raise his eyebrows, bare his teeth. What nerve is damaged?

^ A. Glossopharyngeal

B. Trigeminus

C. Vagus

D. Infraorbital

E. Facial

4 A newborn child has convulsions that have been observed after prescription of vitamin B6. This most probable cause of this effect is that vitamin B6 is a componet of the following enzyme:

^ A. Netoglubarate dehydromine

B. Pyruvate dehydrostase

C. Glutamate decarboxylase

D. Aminolevulinate synthase

E. Glycogen phosphorylase

5 Bacterioscopic examination of a smear from the pharynx of a diphtheria suspect revealed bacilli with volutine granules. What etiotropic drug should be chosen in this case?

^ A. Diphtheritic anatoxin

B. Interferon

C. Bacteriophage

D. Antidiphtheritic antitoxic serum

E. Eubiotic

6 A patient has a decreased vasopressin synthesis that causes polyuria and as a result of it evident organism dehydratation. What is the mechanism of polyuria development?

^ A. Reduced tubular reabsorption of protein

B. Acceleration of glomerular filtration

C. Reduced tubular reabsorption of $Na$ ions

D. Reduced tubular reabsorption of water

E. Reduced glucose reabsorption

7 A 62 year old patient who previously worked as stoker was admitted to a hospital with complaints about general weakness, abrupt weight loss, hoarse voice, dyspnea, dry cough. Laryngoscopy revealed a tumour in the pharynx that invaded vocal cords and epiglottis. What is the most probable cause of tumour development?

A. Nitrosamines

B. Polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates

C. Retroviruses

D. Ionizing radiation

E. Aromatic amines and amides

8 Patients who suffer from severe diabetes and don't receive insulin have metabolic acidosis. This is caused by increased concentration of the following metabolites:

^ A. Unsaturated fatty acids

B. Fatty acids

C. Triacylglycerols

D. Ketone bodies

E. Cholesterol

9 A 62 year woman complains of frequent pain attacks in the area of her chest and backbone, rib fractures. Her doctor suspected myeloma (plasmocytoma). What of the following laboratory characteristics will be of the greatest diagnostic importance?

^ A. Hypoglobulinemia

B. Proteinuria

C. Hyperalbuminemia

D. Hypoproteinemia

E. Paraproteinemia

10 A 2 year old child had acute respiratory viral infection and died from cardiopulmonary decompensation. Autopsy revealed that his right lung was hyperemic; in the 2nd, 6th and 10th segments and on the incision there were airless yellowish foci of irregular form, from several mm up to 1 cm larg E. Microscopical examination revealed exudate consisting mainly of neutrophils in the given areas of pulmonary tissue in the alveoles, bronchioles and bronchial tubes. What is the most probable diagnosis?

^ A. Acute bronchitis

B. Interstitial pneumonia

C. Focal pneumonia

D. Croupous pneumonia

E. Pulmonary abscess

11 Autopsy of a 17 year old girl who died from pulmonary failure revealed a small area of caseous necrosis in the inferior lobe of the right lung, and occurences of caseous necrosis in the bronchopulmonary, bronchial and bifurcational lymph nodes. What is the most probable postmortem diagnosis?

^ A. Hematogenous progression of primary tuberculosis

B. Hematogenous tuberculosis with predominant lung affection

C. Caseous pneumonia under secondary tuberculosis

D. Tuberculoma

E. Primary tuberculosis

12 People adapted to high external temperatures have such pecularity: profuse sweating isn't accompanied by loss of large volumes of sodium chlorid E. This is caused by the effect of the following hormone upon the perspiratory glands:

A. Aldosterone

B. Natriuretic

C. Cortisol

D. Tgyroxin

E. Vasopressin

13 An experimantal animal that was kept on protein-free diet developed fatty liver infiltration, in particular as a result of deficiency of methylating agents. This is caused by disturbed generation of the following metabolite:

A. Acetoacetate

B. Cholesterol


D. Choline

E. Linoleic acid

14 A man weighs 80 kg, after long physical activity his circulating blood volume is reduced down to 5,4 l, hematocrit makes up 50%, whole blood protein is 80 g/l. These blood characteristics are determined first of all by:

^ A. Water loss with sweat

B. Increased diuresis

C. Increased number of erythrocytes

D. Increased circulating blood volume

E. Increased protein concentration in plasm

15 Examination of a patient with impaired blood coagulation revealed thrombosis of a branch of inferior mesenteric artery. What bowel segment is damaged?

^ A. Colon transversum

B. Colon sigmoideum

C. Caecum

D. Ileum

E. Colon ascendens

16 A 42 year old woman with neuralgia of trifacial nerve complains about periodical reddening of the right part of her face and neck, sense of warmth gush, increased skin sensitivity. These effects can be explained by the following type of arterial hyperemia:

A. Reactive

B. Functional

C. Metabolic

D. Neuroparalytic

E. Neurotonic

17 A 7 year old child often suffers from streprococcic angin A. Doctor suspected development of rheumatism and administered serological examination. The provisional diagnosis will be most probably confirmed by presence of antibodies to the following streptococcic antigen:

A. M-protein

B. Capsular polysaccharide

C. C-carbohydrate

D. O-streptolysin

E. Erythrogenic toxin

18 Clinical diagnosis of a female patient was gonorrhoe A. What examination method can be applied for confirmation of this diagnosis?

^ A. Test with bacteriophage

B. Immobilization reaction

C. Hemagglutination reaction

D. Infection of laboratory animals

E. Microscopy of pathological material

19 A patient staggers and walks astraddl E. He has hypomyotonia of arm and leg muscles, staccato speech. In what brain section is this affection localized?

A. Cerebellum

B. Red nucleus

C. Caudate nucleus

D. Motor cortex

E. Putamen

20 A bacteriological laboratory received sputum sample of a patient suffering from tuberculosis. Bacterioscopic examination of smears and detection of tuberculosis bacillus can be realized by one of enrichment methods that involves processing of sputum only with solution of caustic sod A. What is this method called?

A. Inactivation

B. Neutralization

C. Homogenization

D. Flotation

E. Filtration

21 Examination of an ovary specimen stained by hematoxylin-eosine revealed a follicle in which follicular epithelium consisted of 1-2 layers of cubic cells. There was also a bright red membrane around the ovocyt E. What follicle is it?

A. Mature

B. Primary

C. Secondary

D. Atretic

E. Primordial

22 Laboratory examination of a child revealed increased concentration of leucine, valine, isoleucine and their ketoderivatives in blood and urin E. Urine smelt of maple syrup. This disease is characterized by the deficit of the following enzyme:

^ A. Dehydrogenase of branched amino acids

B. Phosphofructomutase

C. Aminotransferase

D. Glucose-6-phosphatase

E. Phosphofructokinase

23 Autopsy of a man who died from burn disease revealed brain edema, liver enlargement as well as enlargement of kidneys with wide light-grey cortical layer and plethoric medullary are A. Microscopic examination revealed necrosis of tubules of main segments along with destruction of basal membranes, intersticium edema with leukocytic infiltration and haemorrhages. What is the most probable postmortem diagnosis?

A. Pyelonephritis

B. Tubulointerstitial nephritis

C. Necrotic nephrosis

D. Gouty kidney

E. Myeloma kidney

24 A couple had a child with Down's diseas E. Mother is 42 years ol D. This disease is most probably caused by the following impairment of prenatal development:

A. Blastopathy

B. Gametopathy

C. Embryopathy

D. Non-specific fetopathy

E. Specific fetopathy

25 A patient suffering from pheochromocytoma complains of thirst, dry mouth, hunger. Blood test for sugar revealed hyperglycemi A. What type of hyperglycemia is it?

A. Adrenal

B. Alimentary

C. Hypercorticoid

D. Somatotropic

E. Hypoinsulinemic

26 Examination of a newborn boy's genitalia revealed an urethral hiatus that opens on the undersite of his penis. What malformation is it?

A. Cryptorhidism

B. Monorchism

C. Epispadia

D. Hermaphroditism

E. Hypospadias

27 Blood of a 12 year old boy presents low concentration of uric acid and accumulation of xanthine and hypoxanthin E. This child has genetic defect of the following enzyme:

^ A. Ornithine carbamoyltransferase

B. Arginase

C. Xanthine oxidase

D. Glycerylkinase

E. Urease

28 Cytogenetic examination of a patient with reproductive dysfunction revealed normal karyotype 46 ХY in some cells, but most cells have karyotype of Klinefelter's syndrome - 47 ХХY. Such cell heterogenity is called:

A. Mosaicism

B. Duplication

C. Inversion

D. Monomorphism

E. Transposition

29 A patient got an injury of spinal marrow in a road accident that caused loss of tactile sensation, posture sense, vibration sens E. What conduction tracts are damaged?

^ A. Anterior spinocerebellar tract

B. Tectospinal tract

C. Fascicle of Goll and cuneate fascicle

D. Rubrospinal tract

E. Reticulospinal tract

30 A 15 year old girl has pale skin, glossitis, gingivitis. Blood count: erythrocytes - 3,3*1012/l, hemoglobin - 70 g/l, colour index - 0,5. Examination of blood smear revealed hypochromia, microcytosis, poikilocytosis. What type of anemia is it?

A. Sickle-cell

B. Thalassemia

C. B12-folic acid-deficient

D. Hemolytic

E. Iron-deficient

31 Blood group of a 30 year old man was specified before an operation. His blood is Rh-positiv E. Reaction of erythrocyte agglutination was absent with standard sera of 0\ (I), А (II), В (III) groups. The blood under examination is of the following group:

A. А (II)

B. 0\ (I)

C. АВ (IV)

D. В (III)

E. -

32 A female patient underwent liver transplantation. 1,5 month after it her condition became worse because of reaction of transplant rejection. What factor of immune system plays the leading part in this reaction?

A. T-killers

B. B-lymphocytes

C. T-helpers

D. Interleukin-1

E. Natural killers

33 A patient was admitted to the surgical department with inguinal herni A. During the operation the surgeon performs plastic surgery on posterior wall of inguinal canal. What structure forms this wall?

^ A. Aponeurosis of abdominal external oblique muscle

B. Loose inferior edge of transverse abdominal muscle

C. Peritoneum

D. Inguinal ligament

E. Transverse fascia

34 A patient suffers from pulmonary tuberculosis. During treatment neuritis of visual nerve aros E. What drug has caused this by-effect?

A. Rifampicin

B. Streptomycin

C. Kanamycin

D. Ethambutol

E. Isoniazid

35 A patient with chronic cardiac insufficiency has been taking foxglove (Digitalis) preparations for a long tim E. Due to the violation of intake schedule the woman got symptoms of intoxication. These symptoms result from:

^ A. Material cumulation

B. Antagonism

C. Tachyphylaxis

D. Sensibilization

E. Idiosyncrasy

36 A patient had been suffering from profuse diarrhea and vomiting for 2 days. He died from acute dehydration. Autopsy revealed that the intestinal wall was edematic and hyperemic, with multiple haemorrhages in the mucous membran E. Intestine lumen contains whitish fluid resembling of rice water. What disease caused death?

A. Enterocolitis

B. Dysentery

C. Salmonellosis

D. Cholera

E. Typhoid fever

37 A 30 year old man had been suffering from acute respiratory disease and died from cardiopulmonary decompensation. Autopsy revealed fibrinous-haemorrhagic inflammation in the mucous membrane of larynx and trachea, destructive panbronchitis, enlarged lungs that look black due to the multiple abcesses, haemorrhages, necrosis. What is the most probable postmortem diagnosis?

A. Parainfluenza

B. Measles

C. Adenoviral infection

D. Influenza

E. Respiratory syncytial infection

38 A patient was diagnosed with bartholinitis (inflammation of greater vulvovaginal glands). In which organ of urogenital system are these glands localized?

A. Clitoris

B. Small lips of pudendum

C. Uterus

D. Vagina

E. Large lips of pudendum

39 Examination of a patient revealed typical presentations of collagenosis. This pathology is characterized by increase of the following urine index:

A. Arginine

B. Hydroxyproline

C. Glucose

D. Mineral salts

E. Ammonium salts

40 After destruction of CNS structures an animal lost orientative reflexes. What structure was destroyed?

^ A. Medial reticular nuclei

B. Black substance

C. Lateral vestibular nuclei

D. Quadrigeminal plate

E. Red nucleus

41 A patient has been syffering from diarrhea for 5 day. On the fith day colonoscopy revealed that membrane of rectum was inflamed, there were greyish-green films closely adhering to the subjacent tissu E. What is the most probable diagnosis?

A. Typhoid fever

B. Crohn's disease

C. Nonspecific ulcerous colitis

D. Dysentery

E. Salmonellosis

42 A cerebral trauma caused increased ammonia generation. What amino acid participates in the excretion of ammonia from the cerebral tissue?

A. Lysine

B. Tryptophan

C. Valine

D. Tyrosine

E. Glutamic

43 A patient suffers from diabetes melitus. After the regular insulin injection his condition grew worse: there appeared anxiety, cold sweat, tremor of limbs, general weakness, dizziness. What preparation can eliminate these symptoms?

A. Noradrenaline

B. Caffeine

C. Glibutide

D. Adrenaline hydrochloride

E. Butamide

44 Examination of a child who frequently suffers from infectious diseases revealed that IgG concentration in blood serum was 10 times less than normal, IgA and IgM concentration was also significantly reduce D. Analysis showed also lack of B-lymphocytes and plasmocytes. What disease are these symptoms typical for?

^ A. Swiss-type agammaglobulinemia

B. Louis-Bar syndrome

C. Dysimmunoglobulinemia

D. Di George syndrome

E. Bruton's disease

45 A patient suffering from stenocardia was taking nitroglycerine which caused restoration of blood supply of myocardium and relieved pain in the cardiac are A. What intracellular mechanism provides restoration of energy supply of insulted cells?

^ A. Intensification of RNA generation

B. Intensification of ATP resynthesis

C. Intensification of oxygen transporting into the cell

D. Increased permeability of membranes

E. Reduction of ATP resynthesis

46 A 66 year old female patient got intravenous injection of magnesium sulfate solution for the purpose of elimination of hypertensive crisis. But arterial pressure didn't go down and after repeated introduction of the same preparation there appered sluggishness, slow response, inhibition of consciousness and respiration. What preparation is antagonist of magnesium sulfate and can eliminate symptoms of its overdose?

^ A. Potassium permanganate

B. Calcium chloride

C. Potassium chloride

D. Sodium chloride

E. Activated carbon

47 A 19 year old woman suffers from primary syphilis. Doctor administered her complex therapy that includes benzylpenicillin sodium salt. What is the mechanism of action of this drug?

^ A. It blocks synthesis of cytoplasm proteins

B. It blocks DNA synthesis

C. It blocks synthesis of peptidoglycan of microbal membrane

D. It blocks RNA synthesis

E. It blocks thiol enzymes

48 Students who are taking examinations often have dry mouth. The mechanism that causes this state is the realization of the following reflexes:

^ A. Unconditioned peripheral

B. Unconditioned sympathetic

C. Conditioned sympathetic

D. Unconditioned parasympathetic

E. Conditioned parasympathetic

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Krok Medicine-2010 iconKrok Medicine-2010

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Krok Medicine-2010 iconKrok 1 Medicine 2004
В2 is administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in microorganisms?
Krok Medicine-2010 iconKrok 1 Medicine 2004
В2 is administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in microorganisms?
Krok Medicine-2010 iconKrok 1 Medicine 2004
В2 is administered. The synthesis disorder of which enzymes does this medicine cause in microorganisms?
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