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8.0 Мікробіологія


Quite often the cause of secondary immunodeficiency is an infection involvement, when the

causative agents propagate directly in the cells of immune system and destroy it. The

following diseases are characterized by:

A Infectious mononucleosis, AIDS

B Tuberculosis, mycobacteriosis

C Poliomyelitis, type A hepatitis

D Dysentery, cholera

E Q-febris, epidemic typhus


It is planned to use the territory of an old cattle burial ground (which is not used for more

than 50 years) for building houses. But ground analysis revealed presence of the

pathogen of the very dangerous illness. Which of the indicated microorgonisms is likely to

remain in the ground for such a long time?

A Bacillus anthracis

B Francisella tularensis

C Brucella abortus

D Yersinia pestis

E Mycobacterium bovis


From the nasopharynx of a 5-year-old child it was excreted amicroorganism which is

identical to Corynebacterium diphtheriae dose according to morphological and biochemical

signs.Microorganism does not produce exotoxin. As a result of what process can this

microorganism become toxigenic?

A Phage conversion

B Cultivation in the telluric environment

C Passing through the organism of the sensative animals

D Growing with antitoxic serum

E Chromosome mutation


While studying a microslide obtained from the punctuate of a regional lymph node and

stained by Romanovsky-Giemsa method a physician revealed some light-pink thin

microorganisms with 12-14 regular spiral coils and pointed ends, up to 10-13 micrometer

long. This might be the causative agent of the following disease:

A Syphilis

B Trypanosomiasis

C Leptospirosis

D Relapsing fever

E Leishmaniasis


Sanitary bacteriological research on water by the membrane filter method revealed two red

colonies on a membrane filter (Endo agar) through which 500 ml of analyzed water were

passed. Calculate the coli index and coli titer of the analyzed water:

A 4 and 250

B 2 and 500

C 250 and 4

D 500 and 2

E 250 and 2


While examining a patient an otolaryngologist noticed hyperaemia and significantly

edematous tonsils with a grayish film upon them. Microscopical examination of this film

revealed some gram-positive bacilli placed at an angle with each other. What disease might

be suspected?

A Diphtheria

B Angina

C Scarlet fever

D Meningococcal nasopharyngitis

E Epidemic parotitis


Patient with vomiting, dizziness, sensation of dubble vision, difficult swallowing was admitted

to the hospital. Doctor suspects botulism. What diagnostic methods should be used for

diagnosis approving?

A Biological test, bacteriological

B Allergic test, serological

C Bacteriological, mycological

D Protozoological, microscopical

E -


A man who was bitten by the unknown dog applied to the surgeon. Wide ragged woundes

were localised on the face. What curative-prophylactic aid should be given to prevent


A Start immunisation with rabies vaccine

B Prescribe combine antibiotic therapy

C Immediate injection of DPT(Diphtheria, Pertusis, Tetanus) vaccine

D Hospitalize the patient and keep under the doctor's supervision

E Immediately inject normal gamma globulin


In a patient with clinical signs of immunodeficiency the number and functional activity of T

and B lymphocytes are not changed. Defect with dysfunction of antigen-presentation to the

immunocompetent cells was found during investigation on the molecule level. Defect of

what cells is the most probable?

A Macrophages, monocytes

B Т-lymphocytes, В-lymphocytes

C NK-cells

D Fibroblasts, Т-lymphocytes, В-lymphocytes

E 0-lymphocytes


A patient with complaints of 3-day-long fever, general weakness, loss of appetite came to

visit the infectionist. The doctor suspected enteric fever. Which method of laboratory

diagnosis is the best to confirm the diagnosis?

A Detachment of blood culture

B Detachment of myeloculture

C Detachment of feces culture

D Detachment of urine culture

E Detachment of pure culture


A consumptive patient has an open pulmonary form of disease. Choose what sputum

staining should be selected for finding out the tubercle (Koch's) bacillus?

A Method of Ziel-Neelsen

B Method of Romanowsky-Giemsa

C Method of Gram

D Method of Neisser

E Method of Burry-Gins


During surgical operation a blood transfusion was made. The blood must be checked to

find antigens of some disease. What disease is expected to be found?

A Virus of hepatitis B

B Virus of hepatitis A

C Adenovirus

D Enterovirus

E Virus of hepatitis E


A 42-year-old man who has been injured in a car accident is brought into the emergency

room. His blood alcohol level on admission is 250 mg/dL. Hospital records show a prior

hospitalization for alcohol related seizures. His wife confirms that he has been drinking

heavily for 3 weeks. What treatment should be provided to the patient if he goes into


A Diazepam

B Phenobarbital

C Pentobarbital

D Phenytoin

E None


A patient who came to the doctor because of his infertility was administered to make tests

for toxoplasmosis and chronic gonorrhoea. Which reaction should be performed to reveal

latent toxoplasmosis and chronic gonorrhoea of the patient?

A (R)CFT- Reiter's complement fixation test

B IFA - Immunofluorescence assay

C Immunoblot analysis

D RDHA - Reverse direct hemagglutination assay

E RIHA - Reverse indirect hemagglutination assay


On bacteriological study of rinsing water of the patient with food poisoning, the pure

bacterial culture was inoculated with the following properties: gram-negative motile bacillus

in the Endo environment grows like achromic colony. Representative of what genus has

caused the illness?

A Salmonella

B Shigella

C Yersinia

D Escherichia

E Citrobacter


The person was selling "homemade pork" sausages on the market. State sanitary inspector

suspected falcification of the sausages.With help of what serological immune reaction can

food substance be identified?

A Precipitation test

B Indirect hemagglutination test

C Agglutination test

D Immunofluorescence test

E Complement- fixation test


While registering the child to the school Mantu's test was made to define whether

revaccination was needed test result is negative. What does this result of the test mean?

A Absence of cell immunity to the tuberculosis

B Presence of cell immunity to the tuberculosis

C Absence of antibodies for tubercle bacillus

D Absence of antitoxic immunity to the tuberculosis

E Presence of antibodies for tubercle bacillus


The donor who for a long time didn't donate the blood was investigated with IFA method.

Anti-HBs antibodies were revealed. What does positive result of IFA in this case mean?

A Previous hepatitis B

B Acute hepatitis B

C Acute hepatitis C

D Chronic hepatitis В

E Chronic hepatitis С


Bacteriological examination of purulent discharges from the urethra revealed

gram-negative bacteria looking like coffee beans. They were localized in the leukocytes

and could decompose glucose and maltose to acid. These are the causative agents of the

following disease:

A Gonorrhoea

B Syphilis

C Veneral lymphogranulomatosis

D Soft chancre

E Melioidosis


Scraps of the mycelium of a fungus, spores, air bubbles and fat drops were discovered on

microscopy of the patient's hair excluded from the infected areas. For what fungus disease

is this microscopic picture characteristic?

A Favus

B Microspory

C Trichophytosis

D Epidermophytosis

E Sporotrichosis


In order to speed up healing of a wound of oral mucosa a patient was prescribed a drug

that is a thermostable protein occuring in tears, saliva, mother's milk as well as in a

new-laid hen's egg. It is known that this protein is a factor of natural resistance of an

organism. What is it called?

A Lysozyme

B Complement

C Interferon

D Interleukin

E Imanine


Study of bacteriological sputum specimens stained by the Ziel-Neelsen method revealed

some bright-red acid-resistant bacilli that were found in groups or singularly. When

inoculated onto the nutrient media, the signs of their growth show up on the 10-15 day.

These bacteria relate to the following family:

A \emph{Micobacterium tuberculosis}

B \emph{Yersinia pseudotuberculosis}

C \emph{Histoplasma dubrosii}

D \emph{Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis}

E \emph{Coxiella burnettii}


A man was admitted to the hospital on the 5th day of disease that manifested itself by

jaundice, muscle aching, chill, nose bleedings. In course of laboratory diagnostics a

bacteriologist performed dark-field microscopy of the patient's blood drop. Name a

causative agent of this disease:

A $Leptospira$ $interrogans$

B $Borrelia$ $dutlonii$

C $Calymmatobacterium$ $granulomatis$

D $Bartonella$ $bacilloformis$

E $Rickettsia$ $mooseri$


Gramnegative bin-shaped diplococcus inside and outside of leucocytes were detected on

bacteriological examination of the purulent exudates from the cervix of the uterus. Name

the causative agent of purulent inflammation of the cervix of the uterus.

A Neisseria gonorroeae

B Chlamidia trachomatis

C Haemophilus vaginalis

D Trichomonas vaginalis

E Calymmatobacterium granulomatis


Patient with diarrhoea was admitted to the infection unit. Gramnegative curved rod-like

bacteria were founded on bacterioscopic examination of faecal masses. What is the most

likely disease in this patient?

A Cholera

B Typhoid fever

C Salmonellosis gastroenteritis

D Diphtheria

E Intestinal form of plague


In a 2-year-old child with catarrhal presentations and skin rash a pediatrician suspected

scarlet fever. The child was given intracutaneously a small dose of serum antibody to the

streptococcal erythrogenic toxin; on the site of injection the rash disappeared. What do the

reaction results mean?

A The clinical diagnosis was confirmed

B The child has hypersensitivity to the erythrogenic toxin

C The disease wasn't caused by haemolytic streptococcus

D The whole serum dose may be injected intravenously

E The child has very weak immune system


From the defecation of a 6-year-old ill child, who has artificial feeding, the intestinal

bacillus with antigen structure 0-111 is excreted. What is the diagnosis?

A Coli-enteritis

B Gastroenteritis

C Cholera-like diseasis

D Food poisoning

E Disentery-like diseasis


For serological diagnostics of the whooping cough it was made large-scale reaction with

parapertussis and pertussis diagnosticums. At the bottom of the test-tubes with

diagnosticum of Bordetella parapertussis grain-like sediment formed. What antibodies

have this reaction revealed?

A Agglutinins

B Precipitins

C Opsonins

D Bacteriolysins

E Antitoxins


A man died from an acute infectious disease accompanied by fever, jaundice,

haemorrhagic rash on the skin and mucous membranes as well as by acute renal

insufficiency. Histological examination of renal tissue (stained by Romanovsky-Giemsa

method) revealed some convoluted bacteria looking like C und S letters. What bacteria

were revealed?

A Leptospira

B Treponema

C Spirilla

D Borrelia

E Campilobacteria


A 16 y.o. boy from a countryside entered an educational establishment. Scheduled

Manteux test revealed that the boy had negative reaction. What are the most reasonable

actions in this case?

A To perform BCG vaccination

B To repeat the reaction in a month

C To perform serodiagnostics of tuberculosis

D To isolate the boy temporarily from his mates

E To perform rapid Price diagnostics


Examination of a patient with pustular skin lesions allowed to isolate a causative agent that

forms in the blood agar roundish yellow middle-sized colonies surrounded by haemolysis

zone. Smears from the colonies contain irregular-shaped clusters of gram-positive cocci.

The culture is oxidase- and catalase-positive, ferments mannitol and synthesizes

plasmocoagulase. What causative agent was isolated?

A \emph{Staphylococcus aureus}

B \emph{Streptococcus agalactiae}

C \emph{Streptococcus pyogenes}

D \emph{Staphylococcus epidermidis}

E \emph{Staphylococcus saprophyticus}


Microscopic examination of a Gram-stained scrape from patient's tongue revealed oval,

round, elongated chains of

dark-violet gemmating cells. What disease can be caused by this causative agent?

A Candidosis

B Actinomycosis

C Streptococcic infection

D Staphylococcic infection

E Diphtheria


From pharynx of a child with suspected diphtheria a pure culture of microorganisms was

isolated. Their morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties appeared to be

typical for diphtheria causative agents. What study should be conducted in order to drow a

conclusion that this is a pathogenic diphtheria bacillus?

A Estimation of toxigenic properties

B Estimation of proteolytic properties

C Estimation of urease activity

D Estimation of cystinous activity

E Estimation of ability to decompose starch


Examination of a child revealed some whitish spots looking like coagulated milk on the

mucous membrane of his cheeks and tongue. Analysis of smears revealed gram-positive

oval yeast-like cells. What causative agents are they?

A Candida

B Staphylococci

C Diphtheria bacillus

D Actinomycetes

E Fusobacteria


A duodenal content smear of a patient with indigestion contains protosoa 10-18 mcm large.

They have piriform bodies, 4 pairs of filaments, two symmetrically located nuclei in the

broadened part of body. What kind of the lowest organisms is it?

A Lamblia

B Dysentery ameba

C Trichomonas

D Intestinal ameba

E Balantidium


Blood of a patient with presumable sepsis was inoculated into sugar broth. There appeared

bottom sediment. Repeated inoculation into blood agar caused growth of small transparent

round colonies surrounded by hemolysis zone. Examination of a smear from the sediment

revealed gram-positive cocci in form of long chains. What microorganisms are present in

blood of this patient?

A Streptococci

B Micrococci

C Staphylococci

D Tetracocci

E Sarcina


On bacteriological examination of the defecation of a 4-months-old baby with the symptoms

of acute bowel infection there were revealed red colonies spread in the large quantity in

the Endo environment. What microorganism can it be?

A Escherichia

B Salmonella

C Staphylococcus

D Streptococcus

E Shigell


Bacteriological examination of a patient with food poisoning required inoculation of a pure

culture of bacteria with the following properties: gram-negative movable bacillus that grows

in the Endo's medium in form of colourless colonies. A representative of which species

caused this disease?

A $Salmonella$

B $Shigella$

C $Iersinia$

D $Esherichia$

E $Citrobacter$


Examination of a young man in the AIDS centre produced a positive result of

immune-enzyme assay with HIV antigens. Patient's complaints about state of his health

were absent. What can the positive result of immune-enzyme assay be evidence of?

A HIV infection

B Being ill with AIDS

C Being infected with HBV

D Having had AIDS recently

E HBV persistence


Microscopy of stained (Ziehl-Neelsen staining) smears taken from the sputum of a patient

with chronic pulmonary disease revealed red bacilli. What property of tuberculous bacillus

was shown up?

A Acid resistance

B Alkali resistance

C Alcohol resistance

D Capsule formation

E Sporification


Reaction of passive hemagglutination conducted with erythrocytic typhoid Vi-diagnosticum

helped to reveal some antibodies in the dilution of the patient's serum at a ratio of 1:80 that

exceeds the diagnostic titer. Such result witnesses of:

A Being a potential carrier of typhoid bacilli

B Being ill with acute typhoid fever

C Typhoid fever recurrence

D Incubation period of typhoid fever

E Reconvalescence of a patient ill with typhoid fever


In order to determine toxigenicity of diphtheria bacilli a strip of filter paper impregnated with

antitoxic diphtherial serum was put on the dense nutrient medium. There were also

inoculated a microbal culture under examination and a strain that is known to be toxigenic.

If the microbal culture under examination produces exotoxin, this wil result in formation of:

A Precipitin lines

B Haemolysis zones

C Zones of diffuse opacification

D Zones of lecithovitellinous activity

E Precipitin ring


A 50-year-old patient with typhoid fever was treated with Levomycetin, the next day his

condition became worse, temperature rised to $39,6^0С$. What caused worthening?

A The effect of endotoxin agent

B Allergic reaction

C Irresponsiveness of an agent to the levomycetin

D Secondary infection addition

E Reinfection


In order to estimate toxigenity of diphtheria agents obtained from patients the cultures were

inoculated on Petri dish with nutrient agar on either side of a filter paper strip that was put

into the centre and moistened with antidiphtheric antitoxic serum. After incubation of

inoculations in agar the strip-like areas of medium turbidity were found between separate

cultures and the strip of filter paper. What immunological reaction was conducted?

A Precipitation gel reaction

B Coomb's test

C Agglutination reaction

D Rings precipitation reaction

E Opsonization reaction


A patient with clinical signs of encephalitis was delivered to the infectious diseases hospital.

Anamnesis registers a tick bite. Hemagglutination-inhibition reaction helped to reveal

antibodies to the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis in the dilution 1:20 which is not

diagnostic. What actions should the doctor take after he had got such result?

A To repeat the examination with serum taken 10 days later

B To examine the same serum

C To apply more sensitive reaction

D To repeat examination with another diagnosticum

E To deny diagnosis of tick-borne encephalitis


The first grade pupils were examined in order to sort out children for tuberculosis

revaccination. What test was applied for this purpose?

A Mantoux test

B Schick test

C Supracutaneous tularin test

D Burnet test

E Anthraxine test


Clinical diagnosis of a female patient was gonorrhoea. What examination method can be

applied for confirmation of this diagnosis?

A Microscopy of pathological material

B Infection of laboratory animals

C Test with bacteriophage

D Hemagglutination reaction

E Immobilization reaction


A patient suffering from periodical attacks caused by inhalation of different flavoring

substances was diagnosed with atopic bronchial asthma. IgE level was increased. This is

typical for the following type of reactions:

A Anaphylactic reactions

B Cytotoxic reactions

C Immunocomplex reactions

D delayed-type hypersensitivity

E Autoimmune reactions


Bacteriological laboratory examines canned meat whether it contains botulinum toxin. For

this purpose an extract of test specimen and antitoxic antibotulinic serum of A, B, E types

were introducted to a group of mice under examination; a control group of mice got the

extract without antibotulinic serum. What serological reaction was applied?

A Neutralization

B Precipitation

C Complement binding

D Opsono-phagocytic

E Double immune diffusion


For the purpose of retrtospective diagnostics of recent bacterial dysentery it was decided

to perform serological examination of blood serum in order to determine antibody titer

towards Shiga bacilli. What of the following reactions should be applied?

A Passive hemagglutination

B Bordet-Gengou test

C Precipitation

D Hemolysis

E Bacteriolysis


During the repeated Widal's agglutination test it was noticed that the ratio of antibody titers

and O-antigens \emph{S.typhi} in the patient's serum had increased from 1:100 to 1:400.

How would you interpret these results?

A The patient has typhoid fever

B The patient is an acute carrier of typhoid microbes

C The patient is a chronic carrier of typhoid microbs

D The patient previously had typhoid fever

E The patient was previously vaccinated against typhoid fever


A patient recovered from Sonne dysentery and was once more infected with the same

causative agent. What is such infection form called?

A Reinfection

B Recidivation

C Superinfection

D Persisting infection

E Chronic infection


A 10-year-old child had the mantoux tuberculin test administered. 48 hours later a papule

up to 8 mm in diameter appeared on the site of the injection. What type of hypersensitivity

reaction developed after the tuberculin injection?

A Type IV hypersensitivity reaction

B Arthus phenomenon

C Seroreaction

D Atopic reaction

E Type II hypersensitivity reaction


A patient with clinical presentations of immunodeficiency went through immunological

examinations. They revealed significant loss of cells that form rosettes with erythrocytes of

a ram. What conclusion can be made according to the analysis data?

A Decrease of T-lymphocytes rate

B Decrease of B-lymphocytes rate

C Decrease of natural killer cell rate

D Decrease of complement system rate

E Insufficiency of effector cells of humoral immunity


As a result of durative antibiotic therapy a 37-year old patient developed intestinal

dysbacteriosis. What type of drugs should be used in order to normalize intestinal


A Eubiotics

B Sulfanilamides

C Bacteriophages

D Autovaccines

E Vitamins


Among junior children of an orphanage an outbreak of intestinal infection with signs of

colienteritis was registered. In order to identify isolated causative agent it is necessary to:

A Study antigenic properties of the causative agent

B To determine sensitivity to antibiotics

C To study sensitivity to bacteriophages

D To study biochemical properties of the causative agent

E To study virulence of the causative agent


Urine examination of a patient with acute cystitis revealed leukocytes and a lot of

gram-negative bacilli. Inoculation resulted in growth of colonies of mucous nature that

formed green soluble pigment. What microorganism is the most probable cause of the


A $Pseudomonas$ $aeruginosa$

B $Escherihia$ $coli$

C $Klebsiella$ $pneumoniae$

D $Proteus$ $mirabilis$

E $Salmonella$ $enteritidis$


A laboratory received a material from a patient's wound. Ppreliminary diagnosis is gaseous

gangrene. What microbiological method should be applied to determine species of

causative agent?

A Bacteriological

B Allergic

C Bacterioscopic

D Serological



A virological laboratory obtained pathological material (mucous discharges from nasal

meatuses) taken from a patient with provisional diagnosis "influenza". What quick test will

allow to reveal specific viral antigen in the material under examination?

A Direct and indirect immunofluorescence test

B Direct and indirect fluorescence immunoassay

C Hemagglutination inhibition assay

D Radioimmunoassay

E -


In the surgical department of a hospital there was an outbreak of hospital infection that

showed itself in often postoperative wound abscesses. Bacteriological examination of pus

revealed aurococcus. What examination shall be conducted to find out the source of this

causative agent among the department personnel?

A Phagotyping

B Microscopical examination

C Serological identification

D Estimation of antibiotic susceptibility

E Biochemical identification


A 7 year old child often suffers from streprococcic angina. Doctor suspected development

of rheumatism and administered serological examination. The provisional diagnosis will be

most probably confirmed by presence of antibodies to the following streptococcic antigen:

A O-streptolysin

B C-carbohydrate

C M-protein

D Erythrogenic toxin

E Capsular polysaccharide


A culture of monkey cells (Vero) and a group of mouse sucklings were infected with an

inoculum taken from a child with provisional diagnosis "enterovirus infection". There was no

cytopathic effect on the cell culture but mouse sucklings died. What enteric viruses might

have caused disease of this child?

A Coxsackie A

B Coxsackie B

C ECHO virus

D Polioviruses

E Unclassified enteric viruses 68-71


A patient has been suffering from elevated temperature and attacks of typical cough for 10

days. Doctor administered inoculation of mucus from the patient's nasopharynx on the

agar. What microorganism is presumed?

A Pertussis bacillus

B Pfeiffer's bacillus

C Listeria

D Klebsiella

E Staphylococcus


A patient of surgical department complains about pain in the small of her back and in the

lower part of her belly; painful and frequent urination. Bacteriological examination of urine

revealed gram-negative oxidase-positive rod-like bacteria forming greenish mucoid

colonies with specific smell. What causative agent can it be?

A \emph{Pseudomonas aeruginosa}

B \emph{Proteus mirabilis}

C \emph{E.coli}

D \emph{Str.pyogenes}

E \emph{Mycoplasma pneumonie}


A female patient underwent liver transplantation. 1,5 month after it her condition became

worse because of reaction of transplant rejection. What factor of immune system plays the

leading part in this reaction?

A T-killers

B Interleukin-1

C Natural killers

D B-lymphocytes

E T-helpers


Microscopical examination of a microbal culture revealed fusiform spore-forming

microorganisms that get violet-blue Gram's stain. What microorganisms were revealed?

A Clostridia

B Streptococci

C Spirochaete

D Actinomycete

E Diplococci


A specimen stained by Ozheshko method contains rod-like microorganisms stained blue

with round terminal components stained red. What are these components called?

A Spores

B Cilia

C Flagella

D Capsules

E Mesosomas


During the regular sanitary-epidemiological inspection of a pharmacy, the bacteriological

analysis of air was performed. The air was found to have bacilli, yeast fungi, hemolytic

streptococci, micrococci. Which of the detected microorganisms indicate the direct

epidemic danger?

A Haemolytic streptococci

B Micrococci

C Bacilli

D Yeast fungi

E -


A bacteriological laboratory received sputum sample of a patient suffering from

tuberculosis. Bacterioscopic examination of smears and detection of tuberculosis bacillus

can be realized by one of enrichment methods that involves processing of sputum only with

solution of caustic soda. What is this method called?

A Homogenization

B Inactivation

C Flotation

D Filtration

E Neutralization


A pregnant woman was registered in an antenatal clinic and underwent complex

examination for a number of infections. Blood serum contained $IgM$ to the rubella virus.

What is this result indicative of?

A Of primary infection

B Of a chronic process

C The woman is healthy

D Of exacerbation of a chronic disease

E Of recurring infection with rubella virus


A 65-year-old man has purulent abscess on his neck. Analyses revealed a culture of

gram-positive cocci with plasmocoagulase activity. This culture relates most likely to:

A \emph{Staphylococcus aureus}

B \emph{Streptococcus pyogenes}

C \emph{Staphylococcus epidermidis}

D \emph{Staphylococcus saprophyticus}

E -


Material taken from a patient with provisional diagnosis "influenza" was referred to a

laboratory. For virological examination the hemadsorption reaction was applied. This

reaction can be applied for detection of the following viruses:

A Viruses containing hemagglutinins

B All the simple viruses

C All the complex viruses

D DNA-genomic viruses

E Any viruses


Inoculum from pharynx of a patient ill with angina was inoculated into blood-tellurite agar. It

resulted in growth of grey, radially striated (in form of rosettes) colonies 4-5 mm in

diameter. Gram-positive bacilli with clublike thickenings on their ends placed in form of

spread wide apart fingers are visible by microscope. What microorganisms are these?

A Diphtheria corynebacteria

B Botulism clostridia

C Diphtheroids

D Streptococci

E Streptobacilli


During examination of a patient a dentist revealed a lot of "white spots" - zones of enamel

demineralization. What microorganisms take part in the development of this process?

A \emph{Streptococcus mutans}

B \emph{Streptococcus salivarius}

C \emph{Streptococcus pyogenes}

D \emph{Veilonella parvula}

E \emph{Staphylococcus epidermidis}


Planned mass vaccination of all newborn 5-7 day old children against tuberulosis plays an

important role in tuberculosis prevention. In this case the following vaccine is applied:


B Diphteria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine

C Diphtheria and tetanus anatoxin vaccine

D Adsorbed diphtheria vaccine

E -


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8. 0 Мікробіологія iconКрок Фармація Мікробіологія 1
При плановому бактеріологічному дослідженні повітря аптеки було виділено B. cereus
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