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Approval on methodological meeting

of the department of pathophisiology

Protocol №

Chief of department of the pathophysiology,

professor Yu.Ye.Rohovyy

“___” ___________ 2008 year.

Methodological Instruction

to Practical Lesson


Contenting module 2. Typical pathological processes.

Theme14: Hypoxia.

Chernivtsi – 2008

1.Actuality of the theme. The problem of an oxygen deficiency causes practical interest in clinic of internal illnesses (prophylaxis and treatment of myocardium infarction, diseases of the system of breathing, anemias), in neurologic clinic (prophylaxis and treatment of ischemic damages of the brain), in surgical clinic (treatment obliteric endarteriitis, operations on vital important organs), in obstetric practice (struggle with hypoxia of fetus and neonatal). Professional selection of high-resistant to hypoxia people, and also adaptation to an oxygen insufficiency become relevant problem of medicine.

^ 2.Length of the employment – 2 hours.


To khow: types of hypoxia (hypoxic, respiratory, haemic, circulatory, tissue and combined hypoxia).

To be able: to analyse of the two stages of hypoxia-compensation and decompensation specific and non-specific reactivity.

To perform practical work: to analase the causes of oxygen deficiency

4. Basic level.

The name of the previous disciplines

The receiving of the skills

  1. histology

  2. biochemistry

  3. physiology

ndexes of respiratory function blood.

Construction of hemoglobin.

The mechanism of oxygen transport by hemoglobin.

Enzymes of respiratory chain.

The mechanisms of transport of electrons on respiratory chain.

^ 5. The advices for students.

  1. Define hypoxia.

Hypoxia – is a typical pathologic process, developing as a result of insufficient tissue supply by oxygen or its disturbed use.

2. The types of hypoxia.

As to the mechanisms of development there are hypoxic, respiratory, haemic, circulatory, tissue and combined hypoxia.

^ Hypoxic or exogenous hypoxia is develops in the decreased partial pressure of oxygen. The most typical example of it – is a mountain disease.

Respiratory hypoxia occurs as a result of disturbed external breathing: the disturbance of lung ventilation, lung blood supply or diffusion.

^ Haemic hypoxia develops in blood disturbances and in particular the decrease of its oxygen capacity.

Its subdivided into anemic hypoxia and the hypoxia, caused by haemoglobin inactivation.

In pathologic conditions some compounds not able to realize respiratory function are formed. It is carboxyhaemoglobin, formed from haemoglobin and carbon monoxide. Haemoglobin can’t transfer oxygen in such compounds. The iron containing enzymes are inactivated too. Methemoglobin is forming during the poisoning by nitrates.

^ Circulatory hypoxia develops in different disturbances of blood circulation. There are ischemic and congestive forms.

If the disturbances occur in systemic circulation, blood oxygenation can be unchanged, but there are some disturbances in oxygen transfer to the tissues. If the changes are in pulmonary circulation the oxygenation of arterial blood is disturbed.

Circulatory hypoxia can be provoked by both absolute insufficiency of blood circulation and relative one. This condition can appear in cardiac muscle in emotional exertion.

Microcirculatory disturbances also lead to the hypoxia of the same type.

^ Tissue hypoxia is a disturbance of oxygen utilization. Tissue supply by oxygen is sufficient, by its biological oxidation is disturbed. The causes are the decreased number and activity of respiratory enzymes, the disconnection of oxidation and phosphorilation. A classical example is poisoning by cyanides. Large doses of alcohol and some drugs inhibit dehydrogenases. Avitaminosis also provokes the inhibition of synthesis of some respiratory enzymes.

The disconnection of oxidation and phosphorilation leads to the less effectiveness of biological oxidation, energy becomes dispersed as free heat, the resynthesis of macroergs. Peroxide lipid oxidation provokes the destabilization of mitochondrial and lysosomal membranes. All these things lead to hypoxia. The causes are: ionizing radiation, hypoxia, the deficit of natural antioxysators, which reduce free radicals and destroy hydrogen peroxide. These are: ascorbinic acid, katalase, cholesterol, some steroid hormones, ubichinon, serotonin and others.

Usually, we meat combined forms of hypoxia. So, on this ground the sixth type of hypoxia – combined hypoxia was distinguished.

Sometimes, we distinguish hypoxia of load, which develops on the background of sufficient on even surplus tissue supply by oxygen. But, the increased functional requests of the organ lead to the inadequate oxygen supply and metabolic disturbances, typical of the true oxygen insufficiency.

^ 3. Pathogenesis of hypoxia

There are two stages of hypoxia-compensation and decompensation. First, due to the compensatory-adaptative reactions, the normal tissue supply by oxygen is maintained on. Decompensation stage develops when adaptation is exhausted.

Compensatory-adaptative reactions develop in the system of transport and utilization of oxygen.

The increase of lung ventilation is realized in the expense of reflex excitation of the respiratory center by impulses from the vascular chemoreceptors. These receptors react upon the changes in blood chemical composition, in particular the accumulation of CO2.

In hypoxic hypoxia, chemoreceptors react upon the decrease of oxygen content in blood. Lung hyperventilation is a positive organism reaction upon the height. But it has some negative consequences: the development of hypocapnia and alkalosis as a result of carbonic acid loss in the organism. Carbonic acid has a significant influence upon the cerebral and coronary blood circulation, the regulation of respiratory and vasomotor centers tension, haemoglobin dissociation. All these functions can be disturbed by the deficiency of carbon dioxide.

The increase of blood circulation is intended to mobilize the means of oxygen transfer (heart hyperfunction, the increase of blood speed). Blood is redistributed to supply the most important organs: the lungs, heart, brain and the expense of decreased blood circulation in the skin, spleen, muscles, and intestines. The changes are regulated by the reflex and humoral mechanisms and by the products of tissue decay, which can dilate the vessels.

The increase of erythrocytes and haemoglobin extends oxygen capacity of blood. The ejection of blood from depots provides short adaptation to hypoxia. During prolonged hypoxia, the production of erythrocytes is increased in the bone marrow under the influence of renal erythropoietins and the products of erythrocytes destruction.

The changes of oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve. In hypoxia, the ability of haemoglobin A to add oxygen to the lungs and to give it to the tissues is increased. Left declination of higher inflection is evident of the increased ability of Hb to absorb oxygen in low partial pressure in the air. So, the arterial blood is saturated with oxygen better than usually. Right declination of lower inflection testifies to the decrease of Hb affinity with oxygen in tissues. So, tissues get more oxygen.

^ 4. The mechanisms of long term adaptation to hypoxia.

Emergency hyperfunction of the external breathing and blood circulation cannot provide steady and long adaptation to hypoxia. As it requires the increased use of oxygen. It is accompanied by the increased functioning of the structures and the extended albuminolysis. Emergency hyperfunction requires energy and structural support to realize active physical and mental work in long-term hypoxia.

The subject of investigation are mountain and diving animals, the inhabitants of mountain regions and experimental animals adapted to hypoxia, during some generations. Its established, that the system responsible for the oxygen transfer are subject to hypertrophy and hypoplasia. The weight of respiratory muscles, lung alveoli, myocardium, and respiratory neurons is increased. These organs become better supply with blood at the expense of the increased number of capillaries and their hypertrophy. The functioning of structures is normalized.

During long acclimatization to mountain hypoxia, oxygen diffusion from the alveolar air to blood improves at the expense of increased capillary permeability. Myoglobin content is increased. It’s an additional oxygen capacity and a stimulator of oxygen diffusion to the tissue.

The changes in oxygen utilization are the following:

1. Tissue ferments utilizate oxygen better, support a high level of oxidizing processes and realize normal synthesis of AIP in spite hypoxyaemia.

2. The most effective use of energy got during the oxidizing processes.

3. The increase of energy output during glycolysis.

There is supposition, that the final enzyme of the respiratory chain-cytochromoxidase – is changed during long adaptation to hypoxia.

The other mechanism of adaptation is an increase of the respiratory enzymes and mitochondria.

The initial link is an inhibition of oxidation and oxidizing resynthesis of AIP in the deficiency of oxygen. As a result, the number of tissue macroergs is reduced and the products of tissue decay are accumulated. The correlation [ADP]*[Pu]/[AIP], marked as a phosphorilation potential, is increased. It is a stimulus for the cellular genetic apparatus. It leads to the increased synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins in mitochondria. Mitochondrial weight increases. Thus, the cells can produce in spite of oxygen deficiency in blood.

The describe processes mainly proceed in the organs, responsible for the oxygen transfer (the lungs, heart, respiratory muscles, bone marrow) and in the organs, which suffer oxygen insufficiency (the brain cortex, respiratory neurons). Synthesis of structural proteins is increased in these organs it leads to their hyperplasia and hypertrophy. So, the prolonged hyperfunction of transport and utilizating systems gets a plastic and energy provision. The stable and economical adaptation is develops.

The changes in the endocrine system and the production of some hormones (glycocorticoids) promote tissue stability to hypoxia.

But in different types of hypoxia, the correlation between the described adaptive reactions is different.

^ 5. The pathological disorders by hypoxia.

The disturbances develop as a result of insufficiency of exhaustion of adaptative mechanisms.

Energy got during oxidizing-reducing processes and it preserved in phosphorus compounds, containing macroergic bonds. In hypoxia, the number of this compounds is decreased. Thus, the deficiency of oxygen leads to energy deprivation of tissues. All disturbances are based on it.

In oxygen insufficiency, metabolism is disturbed and toxic products of incomplete oxidation are accumulated. For example, glycogen content in the liver and muscles is reduced, glucose isn’t oxidized completely. The accumulated lactic acid leads to acidosis. The appearance of products of lipid peroxide oxidation is an important factor of hypoxic injury of the cell.

The intermediate products of albuminous metabolism are accumulated. The ammonia increases, glutamine decreases. Phosphoproteid and phospholipid metabolism becomes disturbed. The negative nitrogenous balance is formed. The synthesis is reduced. The active transport of ions through the biological membranes is disturbed. The content of intracellular potassium is decreased.

The accumulation of calcium in cytoplasm is one of the basic links of hypoxic damage of the cell. The synthesis of the nervous mediators is reduced too.

The described biochemical reactions cause structural disturbances in the cell. So, the increased acidity and other disturbances lead to the damage of lysosomal membrane. The active proteolytic enzymes are released and damage cellular structure. The ultrastructure disturbances are marked as hyperchromatosis, the decomposition of nucleus, swelling and dehydratation of mitochondria.

It was mentioned that the basis of the prolonged adaptation to hypoxia was a structurally supported hyperfunction of systems of oxygen utilization and transfer. Its conditioned by the activation of genetic apparatus. In differentiated cells (the brain cortex), this process can result in exhaustion.

The sensitivity of different tissues to the deficiency of oxygen depends on the following factors:

  1. The intensity of metabolism;

  2. The capacity of tissue glycolytic system;

  3. Energy stocks and macroergic compounds;

  4. The ability of genetic apparatus to provide the plastic consolidation of hyperfunction.

The nervous system is in the most unfavorable conditions.

^ 6. The disturbances in the organs and physiological systems under hypoxia.

The first signs of oxygen deprivations are the disturbances in the nervous system. First euphoria occurs. It is characterized by the emotional and motion excitation, the feeling of one’s own power or, on the contrary, the lost of interest the surroundings, inadequate behavior. The cause is the disturbance of the internal inhibition.

In prolonged hypoxia the metabolic and functional changes in the nervous system are more severe. Inhibition develops. The reflex activity is disturbed, the regulation of breathing and blood circulation is impaired too. Loss of consciousness and convulsions are the symptoms of oxygen deprivation.

The disturbances in other organs are interconnected with the disturbed nervous regulation, energy deprivation and the accumulation of toxic metabolic products.

As to sensitivity to oxygen deprivation, the cardiac muscle takes the second place after the nervous system. The conductive system is more stable than the contractive one. The clinical manifestations of the disturbed excitability, conduction and contraction of the myocardium are tachycardia and arrhythmia. Cardiac insufficiency and the reduced vascular tension lead to hypotension and general disturbance of blood circulation. The latter complicates the course of the pathologic process.

The disturbance of the external breathing consists on the disturbance of the lung ventilation. The periodical Chein-Stocks’ breathing appears. The development of congestive processes in the lungs leads to decreased diffusion of oxygen from the alveolar air to blood.

In the alimentary system the following pathologic conditions are observed: inhibition of peristalsis and secretion in the stomach, intestines and pancreas, polyuria, followed by disturbance of renal filtration, the decrease of temperature, the exhaustion of the adrenal cortex.

But, pathologic conditions at the same time can be considered adaptive ones. So, the nervous system is very sensitive to oxygen deprivation. In hypoxia, the protective inhibition develops. As a result, the nervous system becomes less sensitive to oxygen deprivation.

In hypoxia, the impairment and protection are closely interconnected. But, it is an injury that is the initial link of compensatory adaptation. So, the decrease of pO2 in blood provokes the stimulation of chemoreceptors and mobilization of the external breathing and blood circulation.

The stability for hypoxia depends on several causes, in particular the age. The automatic activity of the respiratory center in hypoxia can be supported by the primitive form of metabolism – anaerobic decomposition of carbohydrates in newborns. The blood of newborns contains fetal haemoglobin, which can realize the respiratory function in the law partial pressure of oxygen in blood. But the most important facts is a poor development in newborns central nervous system.

There are some individual differences in the sensitivity to hypoxia. It depends on many factors, in particular, the production of such antioxidizing erythrocytic enzyme – superoxide dismutase, which has different activity in many individuals.

Some conditions, characterized by deep inhibition of the central nervous system and metabolism (sleep, narcosis, hypotermia), promote the reduction of organism sensitivity to hypoxia.

^ 7. How does it correct hypoxia?

We can raise the stability for hypoxia by the decrease of organism requests in oxygen and by the improving of adaptive reactions in the conditions of altitude chamber. At the same time, the organisms adapt to other unfavorable factors, in particular, physical load, the change of temperature, infection, poisoning, ionizing radiation.

If the utilization of oxygen is disturbed, we can introduce it. In some diseases, we used oxygen under the increased pressure. It creates oxygen stocks in blood and tissues. We use it during poisoning by carbon monoxide, congenital cardiac failures, operations upon the dry heart (without blood supply).

We can correct metabolic disorders with help of the specific antihypoxic preparations. They stimulate the transfer of electrons in the respiratory chain (cytochrome C – like preparations), and inhibit free radical oxidation (antioxidators).

The follow preparations are used, they are phosphorilated carbohydrates, blockers of calcium canals and substances, increasing glycolysis and reducing organism requests in oxygen.

^ 5.1. Content of the theme. Define hypoxia.The types of hypoxia. Pathogenesis of hypoxia. The mechanisms of long term adaptation to hypoxia.

The pathological disorders by hypoxia. The disturbances in the organs and physiological systems under hypoxia. How does it correct hypoxia?

^ 5.2. Control questions of the theme:

  1. Define hypoxia

  2. The types of hypoxia.

3. Pathogenesis of hypoxia.

4. The mechanisms of long term adaptation to hypoxia.

5. The pathological disorders by hypoxia.

6. The disturbances in the organs and physiological systems under hypoxia.

7. How does it correct hypoxia?

^ 5.3. Practice Examination.

Task 1.

The patient with myocardial infarction the signs of hypoxia - dyspnea, tachycardia, paleness of dermal covers, and cyanosis of visible mucous have appeared. The development of in it is connected with

A. Decrease of erythrocytes quantity B. Decrease hemoglobin content C. Decrease of speed of blood flow D. Lack oxygenation of blood E. Difficulted dissociation of oxyhemoglobin

Task 2.

Ambulance delivers to the hospital unconscious person poisoned with carbon monoxide. The hypoxia is conditioned by accumulation in blood

A. Methemoglobin B. Carbhemohlobin C. Oxyhemoglobin

D. Desoxyhemohlobin E. Carboxyhemoglobin

Task 3.

One of the climbers during ascent on an suddenly has lost consciousness. It happened owing to

A. Reduction of oxygen pressure in blood B. Reduction of carbonic acid pressure in blood C. Reduction of oxygen capacity of blood

D. Inactivation of enzymes of tissue breathing E. Delay of oxyhemoglobin dissociation

Task 4.

After massive hemorrhage the patient had hypovolemic shock with development of deep hypoxia. Its consequences most essentially will be mirrored in activity of

A. Lungs B. Kidney C. Spleen D. Brain E. Heart

Task 5.

To the patient was asked to breathe deeply. After 10 respiratory motions he has experienced a vertige. It was caused by

A. Decrease quantity of erythrocytes in blood B. Decrease of concentration of hemoglobin in blood C. Disturbance of diffusion of gases in lungs D. Reduction of carbonic acid concentration in blood

E. Change for the worse of blood supply of pulmonary tissue

Real-life situations to be solved:

Task 1

In the patient with nonclosured arterial Botallo’s duct such respiratory indexes of arterial blood are determined: oxygen volume - 20 volumetric %, contents of oxygen – 15,6 volumetric %, saturation of a haemoglobin by oxygen – 82 %, pressure of oxygen in an arterial blood – 76 mm Hg.

 How do you estimate supply of an organism by oxygen?

 If it is incufficient, how this condition is called?

 What is the mechanism of its development?

 What would you recommend for correction of oxygen balance in this case?

Task 2

The patient is hospitalized to the surgical department of hospital because of stomach bleeding. Dermal covers are pale. Pulse and breathing are speeded up. Quantity of erythrocytes - 3,12 * 1012/l, hemoglobin content - 82 g/l.

s there hypoxia ? Testify your answer.

If yes, to what type does it concern?

What is its mechanism?

Will there be thus changes of pressure of oxygen and contents of an oxyhemoglobin in an arterial blood?

What measures should be accepted for elimination of this hypoxia?


1. Gozhenko A.I., Makulkin R.F., Gurcalova I.P. at al. General and clinical pathophysiology/ Workbook for medical students and practitioners.-Odessa, 2001.

2. Gozhenko A.I., Gurcalova I.P. General and clinical pathophysiology/ Study guide for medical students and practitioners.-Odessa, 2003.

3. Robbins Pathologic basis of disease.-6th ed./Ramzi S.Cotnar, Vinay Kumar, Tucker Collins.-Philadelphia, London, Toronto, Montreal, Sydney, Tokyo.-1999.


Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine Bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine Bukovinian state medical university

Ministry of public health of ukraine bukovinian state medical university iconMinistry of public health of ukraine Bukovinian state medical university

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