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MYLENKOVA RYMMA VOLODYMYRIVNA
State Educational Institution
"Ukrainian Academy of Banking
of National Bank of Ukraine",
foreign languages department,
TRADITIONS AND INNOVATIONS IN FORMING LIABILITY OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS
ТРАДИЦІЇ ТА ІННОВАЦІЇ У ПРОЦЕСІ ФОРМУВАННЯ ВІДПОВІДАЛЬНОСТІ МАЙБУТНІХ ФАХІВЦІВ
Стаття присвячена аналізу традиційних та інноваційних психолого-педагогічних підходів до визначення відповідальності особистості як категорії, педагогічним принципам та формам реалізації процесу формування майбутнього фахівця з високим рівнем відповідальності в навчально-виховному процесі.
Статья посвящена анализу традиционных и инновационных психолого-педагогических подходов к определению ответственности личности как категории, педагогическим принципам и формам реализации процесса формирования будущего специалиста с высоким уровнем ответственности в учебно-воспитательном процессе.
Social demands to the individuals, especially young specialists are growing up. In a job market, saturated by graduates of competing educational institutions that train professionals with a high level of professional skills, the demands of employers to the personal qualities, including the potential liability of employees are increasing.
We see a pedagogical problem in solving the contradictions between social orders and studying component of the educational process which is not aimed at developing responsible future specialists.
The purpose of the article is theoretical and practical bases of formation mechanisms of professional responsibility in the process of professional training of students.
The task of this paper is to identify the essence of social responsibility as a psychological category, to define pedagogical approaches, principles and forms of the process of increasing responsibility of the individuals in their future careers.
A review of scientific publications which observe the problem in the context of the study was carried out. It was found out that different aspects of responsibility were studied by Ukrainian and foreign scientists, namely: professional responsibility as a personal quality (I. Bech, A. Verbitsky, S. Rubinstein, H. Hekhauzen), the probability of error-free operation (Y. Dobromyskiy), the stable characteristics of accuracy of an activity (V. Zazykin), capacities stock reserve, which may be included in the case of complication of the situation (I. Yermakov, O. Konopkina, L. Nersesyan), activity under the influence of extreme factors (V. Nebylitsyn), etc.
The phenomenon of personal responsibility and responsibility in human activity in the psycho-pedagogical practice is closely with the category of activity of an individual. Under activity we understand such a vital capacity of the subject, which purposefully organizes his life. The activity of an individual is realized in two main forms: initiative and responsibility. The typology of the activity lies in the superiority of one of these forms over another and different ways of communication in different types.
So, let us examine responsibility as one of the most important forms of activity and try to explore the possibility and the conditions under which responsibility prevails over the initiative. In order to identify different mechanisms of personal liability in connection with other personal qualities we observe the basic scientific points of view to determining liability. Recent traditional and innovative psychological studies suggest the following general approaches for problems [1, 82]:
1) for an individual type of performer responsibilities are associated with the mechanism of moral obligation, guilt, a high level of responsibility may also be entirely inherent to self-sufficient personality type;
2) in the post-Soviet space countries specific responsibilities are related to a particular "conventional morality" (relationship circumstances) rather than to the legal consciousness;
3) responsibility is defined as a quality inherent to an individual as an activity subject which realizes its integral circuit and ensures achievements of own results regardless of unforeseen problems and circumstances and provides ongoing activities from a quality level given at the beginning and in a limited period of time.
The last of these definitions of responsibility lets discover the inner mechanism of an individual, which provides an optimal activity implementation. We believe that the mechanism of professional responsibility is specified by the category of professional work reliability. Investigation of the reliability has received a considerable impetus in its development during the formation of such sciences as psychology engineering and ergonomics [1, 68-69]. They analyze the issues of reliability of the system "man ? machine" and human activities, which manage equipment (operator, system administrator of the enterprise, cashier, etc.). Over the time, the technocratic approach was changed in favor of psychological determinants ? the functional reserve capacity, level of motivation, individual style of professional activity. Thus, under the professional reliability now we understand the quality of personality that characterizes its ability to implicitly and with the required accuracy to perform professional activities under certain conditions and time limits. Reliability and responsibility of a specialist lets avoid such risks as: technical (procedural), managerial (positional, qualification and educational), moral (ethical and reputational risks).
Taking into consideration these approaches to learning responsibility as a category, we believe that the essential components of the mechanism of specialists’ individual professional liability formation are: 1) individual psychological features of the specialist’s personality; 2) individual’s values as a hidden factor of behavior control;
3) invariant stable professional position and specialist’s model of professional activity;
4) a pattern of decision making; 5) motivational, value and emotional self-regulation and reflection.
The study of individual psychological characteristics of personality as a clear coordination of various structural components of the psyche of the individual, that determines its individuality, quality and style of activity lets us determine the individual program of professional development and find a place of responsibility in the hierarchy of values of the future specialist.
Values that are shared and taken by an individual in a material and spiritual terms, the perception of life and activity in their subjective relevance are supporting facilities for the decision-making and regulation of behavior. The pedagogical influence was aimed at avoiding conflict between values, since this is an indicator of the stability of personality. Mechanism of forming responsibility includes also the identification and construction of a hierarchy of social values (freedom, democracy, dignity, honor, responsibility, conscience), personal (family, financial prosperity, creativity, career, honor, health, intimate relationships, concern for others) and professional according to profession (professionalism, self-development, corporate culture). The influence on the values and motivation of students provides an individual approach and made according to the following groups on the levels of existence: the cultural, professional group, individual and personal values.
Decision making process as a spiritual and intellectual act of volition is closely related to dominance of specific behavior in the individual’s business logic (mechanism of regulation of interaction with the world). All decisions are made at such levels [1, .90]: 1) immediate motives (needs), 2) the requirements of a particular society, the immediate situation, and 3) semantic logic of vital necessity of the world, 4) existence – self-determination, autonomy of personal choice based on their own moral values, freedom and responsibility. Decision making is always based on a choice (based on information processing), setting goals (through the struggle of motives), mode of action (achieving results), evaluation criteria (and self-evaluation).
Motivation, value and emotional self-regulation and reflection is realized in the construction of personality and behavior in accordance with the relevant existing incentive structures. In the regulation of motivation some desirable and undesirable states of reality that are fixed in motivation appear. Motivational regulation is a transformation of reality through the act. Under the motivational, value and emotional reflection we understand phenomena such as self-knowledge, rethinking and testing their own values and aspirations, their own self-analysis skills, in their activities, their opportunity to realize themselves in work, feeling its relevance [3, 40-41].
Mechanisms of forming individual responsibility in an education process use the forces of pedagogical approaches. The most important of them are:
1. Individual approach (thorough study of individual characteristics and individual activities, identifying the most specific features of inner life.
The external environment that affects the motivational values of a student, must be built in ways that meet the conditions of its fulfillment in the process of life: understanding what success (realization of the far future objectives of its qualitative development).
2. Professiographic approach (developing the professional patterns).
3. The approach of the formation based on the principle of responsibility (taking into account the gradual change in relation to potential and actual capabilities of the individual).
4. Context approach (including elements of the future professional activity in the educational process).
5. Culturological approach (categories of responsibility are examined as a structural element of general and professional culture of a specialist).
6. Acmeological approach (a focus on personal development and progressive realization of professional activity).
Stability of responsibility as of a new feature requires special attention in the context of this problem. The key resistance factor acquired as a favor is, by the way, psychological stability of a specialist. We agree with the opinion of I. Ermakov, D. Puzikov that "the main features of psychological stability is dynamic stability, poise and personal resistance [4, 36]."
Dynamic stability enables the individuals to maintain a constant high level of spirit, faith in themselves, optimism in situations of life difficulties.
Serenity lets regulate their own response to stimulation from the environment, minimize their negative impact on the psyche. Resistance is the ability to use resistant behavior, defending their choice.
Thus, the mechanisms of professional and personal liability of future specialists formation involve: individual psychological characteristics of personality, values, invariant stable professional position and professional model professional activities, an individual pattern of decision making, motivation, emotional self-regulation and reflection. The pedagogical influence on personality should take into consideration an individual, professiographic, context, acmeological, cultural innovative approaches and the traditional principle of personal development. The implementation process involves the formation of responsibility using the innovative forms of pedagogical process, such as integrated lectures, reflective workshops, study-via-playing training aimed at the effective functioning of a specialist in modern sphere of professional activity.
1. Akmeological dictionary / Anatoly Derkach, ? Moscow: Publishing registry office, 2006. ? 161 p.
2. Verbytskyy A.A. reactor learning in High School: Context approach: method. Handbook [Text] / AA Verbytskyy ? M.: High School, 1991. ? 207 p.
3. Dmytrenko G.A. Motivation and assessment of staff: Textbook. Allowance / GA Dimitrenko, EA Sharapatova, T.N. Maksimenko ? K.: AIDP, 2002. ? 248 p.
4. Ermakov I.G. Project outlines the formation of a viable and vibrant personality: practice-oriented guide [Text] / Ivan Ermakov, Dmitry Puzikov ? Zaporozhye: Khortytskyi Education and Rehabilitation Center, 2006. ? 220 p.
5. Seleuco G.K. Encyclopedia of educational technology: a 2 t T. 1. / G.K. Seleuco - Moscow: NII of school technology, 2006. ? 816 p.
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