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Контрольное задание 1




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Контрольное задание 2

Для выполнения задания № 2 необходимо повторить следующие разделы курса английского языка:

  1. Видо-временные формы глагола:

  1. действительный залог — формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future); формы Continuous (Present, Past, Future); формы Perfect (Present, Past, Future);

  2. страдательный залог — формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future).

Особенности перевода пассивных конструкций на русский язык.

2. Простые неличные формы глагола: Participle I (Present Participle), Participle II (Past Participle) в функциях определения и обстоятельства, Gerund — герундий, простые формы.

3. Модальные глаголы can, must, may, should и эквивалентные им конструкции to be able, to have to.

4.Определительные и дополнительные придаточные предложения.

Используйте следующие образцы выполнения упражнений.

Образец выполнения упр. I

1. Many people are now trying to acquire computer literacy to get better job or to use the new technology in their existing job.




Многие люди сейчас пытаются овладеть компьютерной грамот-ностью, чтобы получить луч-шую работу или использовать новую технологию в своей работе

are trying — Present Continuous Active от глагола to try


2. The programs and data were transferred into the computer memory.




Программы и данные были переведены в память компь-ютера.

were transferred — Past Indefinite Passive от глагола to transfer


3.A person who has completed a course in programming will find an interesting job, depending on skill and experience.




Человек, который закончил курс по программированию, найдет интересную работу в зависимости от своего мас-терства и опыта.

has completed — Present Perfect Active от глагола to complete

will find — Future Indefinite Active от глагола to find

^ Образец выполнения упр. II

1. The analog computer is used essentially for problems involving measurements.




Аналоговый компьютер обычно используется для решения проблем, связанных с измерениями.

Used — Participle II, составная часть видо-временной формы Present Indefinite Passive от глагола to use.

Involving — Participle I, определение.


2. The set of instructions, called a program, is prepared by one or more programmers for each job a computer is to do.




Последовательность команд, называющаяся программой, готовится одним или нес-колькими программистами для каждой операции, которую должен выполнить компьютер.

Called — Participle II, определение.

Prepared — Participle II, составная часть видо-временной формы Present Indefinite Passive от глагола to prepare.


3. Printer is a high-speed machine for printing output from the computer.




Принтер — высокоскоростное устройство для распечатки выходной информации

Printing — герундий.

^ Образец выполнения упр. III

1. The operator can stop or start the program or make corrections in it.




Оператор может остановить или запустить программу либо сделать в ней ис-правления.

Can — модальный глагол, обозначающий возможность выполнения действия.


2. Since computers have to process vast quantities of data and programs, a lot of storage space is required.




Поскольку компьютерам при-ходится обрабатывать огром-ное количество данных и программ, требуется большой объем памяти.

Have to — модальная конструкция, эквивалентная глаголу must, обозначающая долженствование.


3. Before the computer can do the necessary computations, the number should be converted to machine code.




Прежде чем компьютер сможет выполнить необ-ходимые вычисления, число следует перевести в машин-ный код.

Can — модальный глагол, обозначающий возможность выполнения действия.

Should — модальный глагол, обозначающий долженствование.

Вариант 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Computers accept information, perform mathematical and logical operations and supply new information.

  2. Computers have already penetrated almost into all spheres of modern economy.

  3. The first computer was built in 1930 but since then computer technology has evolved a great deal.

  4. The second generation of computers was developed in 1960.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Computers are machines designed to process specially prepared pieces of information.

  2. When talking about computers, we must consider both hardware and software.

  3. The analog computer is used for problems involving measurement.

  4. The vast majority of computers nowadays are used for storing, classifying, sorting, cataloguing and retrieving information of all kinds.




  1. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. A computer can do the work of hundreds of people in a very short time.

  2. The programmer has to determine how to solve the problem.

  3. It may take a lot of time to find a solution to a complex problem in programming.

  4. They should test this electronic device tomorrow.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, обращая внимание на правильное размещение предложений на русском и английском языке.

^ Popularity of the Computer

Computers are fast, efficient, and very accurate machines that can do in seconds what would take a person hours, days, or even months. In the last few years, they have become an important part of our lives. Since the first-generation computers with vacuum tubes were designed and built in the 1940s and 50s, computers have become very sophisticated and complex machines. New advances in technology such as microcircuits and silicon chips have considerably changed the design of the computer. The large, bulky machines that once filled an entire room, today barely fill a desk-top. Just as they have decreased in size, computers have decreased greatly in price.

Computer technology has changed the way we live and it has created problems. Computers have created new ways to commit fraud, and they have posed new ethical problems.

Because of the rapid development and spread of the computer, there are few people whose lives have not been affected by it, at least indirectly. Every day we hear about new uses of the computer. Students are using small, programmable, pocket calculators that they can carry to class, and certainly computers will continue to be used more and more in business, industry, education, and at home.

An important use of computers is in education. It is called computer assisted instruction, or CAI. It is becomming more and more popular at all levels of education from pre-school to university. There are computer toys that teach 3-year-olds how to read and spell. Starting in kindergarten, computers are being used in the classroom to allow students to work without a teacher on subjects ranging from mathematics to reading, and from Spanish to English as a Second Language.

Computer technology is a fast growing field. It has been said that if transport technology had developed as rapidly as computer technology, a trip across the Atlantic Ocean today would take a few seconds.



  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту.

  1. When were the first-generation computers designed?

  2. Where are computers efficiently applied nowadays?

  3. What factors have considerably changed the design of the computer?

Вариант 2

  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Computers have changed the way in which many kinds of jobs are done.

  2. In the future, microprocessors will be cheaper, and their capacity will be greater.

  3. In our country the first electronic digital computer was constructed by the Ukrainian Academician S.A. Lebedev in 1950.

  4. Microcomputer software is developing rapidly.




  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The computed results were printed in tables.

  2. Discussing the advantages of the new memory unit the professor gave the students all the necessary explanations.

  3. Logical operations performed by a computer are comparing, selecting, sorting and determining.

  4. Many different types of industries are using microcomputers to do their work.




  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Computers can’t process information if complete programs are not put in internal storage.

  2. My friend was happy when at last he was allowed to work at the computing centre.

  3. The programmer must define the problem clearly.

  4. You should visit the computing centre to see the operation of computers.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, правильно разместив предложения на русском и английском языке.

^ What Is a Computer?

A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operate switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. The basic idea of a computer is that we can make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or that magnetize or do not magnetize the cores.

The basic job of computers is the processing of information. Computers can be defined as devices which accept information in the form of instructions called a program and characters called data, perform mathematical or logical operations on the information and then supply results of these operations. The program and the data are kept inside the computer in a place called memory.

Computers have many remarkable powers. However, most computers have three basic capabilities. First, computers have circuits for performing arithmetic operations, such as: addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and exponentiation. Second, computers have a means of communicating with the user. If we couldn’t feed information in and get results back, these machines wouldn’t be of much use. However, certain computers are used to control directly things such as robots, aircraft navigation systems, medical instruments, etc.

Some of the most common methods of inputting information are to use punched cards, magnetic tape, disks, and terminals. The computer’s input device reads the information into the computer. For outputting information, two common devices used are a printer which prints the new information on paper, or a CRT display screen which shows the results on a TV-like screen.

Third, computers have circuits which can make decisions. The computer can decide three things, namely: Is one number less than another? Are two numbers equal? and, Is one number greater than another?

A computer can solve a series of problems and make hundreds, even thousands, of logical decisions without becoming tired or bored. A computer can replace people in dull, routine tasks, but it has no originality; it works according to the instructions given to it and cannot exercise any value judgements. A computer operates like a mechanical `brain`, but its achievements are limited by the minds of human beings. A computer cannot do anything unless a person tells it what to do and gives it the appropriate information.


  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту.

  1. What is the basic idea of a computer?

  2. Where are the programs and the data kept?

  3. What basic capabilities do most computers have?

Вариант 3

  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Not all computers have the same type of memory.

  2. The introduction of terminals and screens has replaced the use of punched cards.

  3. The usual procedure is that information storage is followed by information analysis.

  4. By the 1960s, computers were faster than their predecessors and semiconductors had replaced vacuum tubes.




  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. An algorithm is a sequence of instructions used to solve a problem.

  2. Computer technology is a fast growing discipline.

  3. Computers nowadays operate quickly and accurately in solving problems.

  4. They are discussing new trends and methods in the field of computer science.




  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. A computer can replace people in dull, routine tasks.

  2. Programmers must be able to write programs well and efficiently.

  3. Digits and characters have to be translated by human beings into specially prepared symbols that the machine can accept.

  4. Programmers should have enough practical data processing experience.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, правильно разместив предложения на русском и английском языке.

^ Careers in the Field of Data Processing

There is a wide range of jobs available in the field of data processing, the most common of which are computer operator, programmer, system analyst, and data processing manager.

The computer operator should be a reliable person because the job involves responsibility for very expensive machines. His work is rather routine, like changing tapes and disks, but the operator should be able to cope with emergency situations, if and when they arise. As soon as there is a malfunction in the system, the operator has to recognize it and report it to the manager. The operator’s knowledge is mainly concerned with the hardware and not with the software, but he or she should have interest in programming and should know enough about it to be able to interpret the programmer’s instructions. Often programmers start their careers as computer operators.

The main tasks of a computer programmer are first, to write programs to solve problems; second, to write them on time as they are needed; and third, to write them clearly so that other programmers can understand them. The career of a programmer can start as a trainee in a data processing department after a course in computer programming. At this stage, he or she is guided and supervised by another programmer. With increasing experience in writing more efficient programs, the trainee is given more responsibility and advances first to the position of a junior programmer and then to that of a senior programmer.

Specifications for the data processing problems are given to the programmer by the systems analyst. The key to this person’s job is communication, because he or she should be able to interact with the people in the department both verbally and in writing. One of the analyst’s tasks is to analyse problems, outline solutions to them. The other aspect of this job deals with setting the objectives of a project and then finding the best method of achieving them. This involves constant examination of the system, modification of weaknesses in it, or sometimes even changing it to a completely new system.

The key person in a data processing department is its manager. The success of the department depends on his or her capacity as a leader and on his or her technical knowledge. The manager is responsible for communicating with superiors regarding policy-making decisions of the organization. The manager should have enough practical data processing experience to ensure that everybody in the department is working towards the same end. The manager should have an active mind, imagination, tact, and the ability to control others.


  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту.

  1. What careers have evolved because of computers and information revolution?

  2. Why is knowledge of programming desirable for a computer operator?

  3. What are the main tasks of a computer programmer?

Вариант 4

  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Computers have become smaller, faster, and cheaper.

  2. The success or failure of any computer system depends on the skill with which the hardware and software components are selected.

  3. The students are still waiting for their acceptance into the Computer Science program.

  4. What the introduction of the transistor did a number of years ago, the microprocessor is doing now.




  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The improved performance of transistors led to the development of minicomputers.

  2. Each instruction has a unique code specifying a particular operation.

  3. Automatized information processing radically modified the method devised.

  4. Students are using small pocket calculators that they can carry to class.




  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The second-generation computers could perform work ten times faster than their predecessors.

  2. Information for a digital computer has to be in the form of digits or characters.

  3. The computer operator should be a reliable person because the job involves responsibility for very expensive machines.

  4. An entire large room may be devoted to maxicomputers and their equipment.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, правильно разместив предложения на русском и английском языке.

^ History of Computers

The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820 as the result of several people’s experiments. This type of machine, which saves a great deal of time and reduces the possibility of making mistakes, depends on a series of ten-toothed gear wheels. In 1830 Charles Babbage, an Englishman, designed a machine that was called `The Analytical Engine`. Many of his ideas were the basis for building today’s computers.

In 1930, the first analog computer was built by an American named Vannevar Bush. This device was used in World War II to help aim guns. The first digital computer was completed in 1944. Professor Howard Aiken and some people from IBM were responsible for this invention. This was the first machine that could figure out long lists of mathematical problems at a very fast rate. In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsylvania, J. Eckert and J. Mauchly, built the first digital computer using parts called vacuum tubes. Another important advancement in computers came in 1947, when John von Newmann developed the idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the computer’s memory.

The first generation of computers, which used vacuum tubes, came out in 1950. These computers could perform thousands of calculations per second. In 1960, the second generation of computers was developed. They could perform work ten times faster than their predecessors. Second-generation computers were smaller, faster and more dependable than first-generation computers. The reason for this extra speed was the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. The third-generation computers appeared on the market in 1965. These computers could do a million calculations a second.

Unlike second-generation computers, these are controlled by tiny integrated circuits and are consequently smaller and more dependable. The fourth-generation computers are 50 times faster than their predecessors and can complete approximately 1,000,000 instructions per second. The integrated circuits are greatly reduced in size. This is due to microminiaturization, which means that the circuits are much smaller than before; as many as 1000 tiny circuits now fit onto a single chip.


  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту.

  1. When did the first calculating machine appear?

  2. Who invented the first analog computer?

  3. How did the third-generation computers differ from the second-generation machines?

Вариант 5

  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Computers permit people to use their time more effectively.

  2. The first analog computer was used in World War II?

  3. Microfilm is replacing the printer because it is a faster way of storing information.

  4. Computers have decreased man’s workload.




  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The most common programs used in business are those for word processing, database management programs, accounting, graphics, and communications programs.

  2. Automatized information processing radically modified the method devised.

  3. The microcomputer usually consists of several integrated circuit chips, including a microprocessor chip, memory chips, and input/output interface chips.

  4. Computer systems are used for a variety of jobs including train schedules, planning, cargo loading, personnel availability and stock control.




  1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. One must know how a computer works in general and what components are involved.

  2. The lecture on automatized information processing was to begin at 9 o`clock.

  3. You should test the results of calculations.

  4. A computer can do the same operation millions of times without stopping.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, правильно разместив предложения на русском и английском языке.

^ Computer Capabilities and Limitations

Like all machines, a computer needs to be directed and controlled in order to perform a task successfully. Even the most sophisticated computer must be told what to do. Until the capabilities and the limitations of a computer are recognized, its usefulness cannot be thoroughly understood.

In the first place, computers are capable of doing repetitive operations. A computer can perform similar operations thousands of times, without becoming bored, tired, or even careless.

Secondly, computers can process information at extremely rapid rates. For example, modern computers can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems millions of times faster than a skilled mathematician.

Thirdly, computers may be programmed to calculate answers to whatever level of accuracy is specified by the programmer. These machines are very accurate and reliable. Because they are man-made machines, they sometimes break down and have to be repaired. However, in most instances when the computer fails, it is due to human error and is not the fault of the computer at all.

In the fourth place, general-purpose computers can be programmed to solve various types of problems because of their flexibility. Computers are so widely used today because almost every big problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems — one after another.

Finally, a computer, unlike a human being, has no intuition. A person may suddenly find the answer to a problem without working out too many of the details, but a computer can only proceed as it has been programmed to.


  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту.

  1. What are the main capabilities of computers?

  2. What is the real cause of most computer errors?

  3. Why are computers so widely used today?

1   2   3   4

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