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Контрольное задание 1




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Контрольное задание 3

Чтобы правильно выполнить задание 3, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

  1. Грамматические функции и значения слов that, one, it.

  2. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) видо-временных форм Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect.

  3. Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do.

  4. Простые неличные формы глагола. Инфинитив в функции а) подлежащего, б) составной части сказуемого, в) определения, г) обстоятельства цели.

  5. Бессоюзное подчинение в определительных и дополнительных предложениях.

Используйте образцы выполнения упражнений.

^ Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. I)

The word «ecology» was devised more than a hundred years ago — in 1869.




Слово «экология» было придумано более ста лет назад — в 1869 году.

was devised — Past Indefinite Passive


Today the water supply is being reduced by pollution — from industrial, agricultural and residential uses.




В настоящее время запасы воды сокращаются из-за ее загряз-нения промышленными, сельс-кохозяйственными и бытовыми отходами.

is being reduced — Present Continuous Passive

^ Образец выполнения 2 (к упр. II)

It is possible extinction of whales that should be cared by everyone.




Именно из-за возможного вымирания китов следует проявить заботу о них.

усилительное it в эмфатической конструкции


It is the process of satisfying our material needs.




Это процесс удовлетворения наших материальных потреб-ностей.

it — указательное местоимение


One knows consumer goods are not used to manufacture other goods.




Известно, что потребительские товары не используются для производства других товаров.

one — неопределенное местоимение


Try to eat a lot of fruit and vegetables but only fresh ones.




Старайтесь есть много фруктов и овощей, но только свежих.

ones — заменитель существительного во множественном числе


The performance of the present electric cars does not measure up to that of standard cars.




Эксплуатационные качества современных электрических машин не соответствуют экс-плуатационным качествам типовых машин.

that — слово-заменитель ранее упомянутого существительного


The laws of nature that must be taken into account are set forth in the physical sciences as well as the biological sciences.




Законы природы, которые должны быть приняты во внимание, объясняются физи-ческими, а также биоло-гическими науками.

that — относительное местоимение в функции подлежащего

^ Образец выполнения 3 (к упр. III)

People are the most important part of the environment.




Люди являются самой важной частью окружающей среды.

to be в форме are — глагол-связка


We are to avoid irreversible changes on our planet.




Мы должны избегать не-обратимых явлений на нашей планете.

to be в форме are — модальный глагол долженствования для выражения необходимости, обусловленной заранее намеченным планом или договоренностью


People who have cars use them for earning their living, for recriation and vacation travel.




Люди, имеющие автомобили, используют их для того, чтобы заработать на жизнь, поехать отдохнуть или путешествовать во время отпуска.

have — смысловой глагол в значении «иметь, обладать»


We have analyzed our decisions and actions concerning environmental problems.




Мы проанализировали наши решения и действия, каса-ющиеся проблем окружающей среды.

have — вспомогательный глагол для образования сложных личных форм


People do a lot to save our environment




Люди много делают для того, чтобы спасти окружающую среду.

do — смысловой глагол


Why do many people remain undisturbed when mining operations scar the earth’s beauty?




Почему многие люди остаются равнодушными к тому, что при разработке полезных иско-паемых нарушается красота земли?

do — вспомогательный глагол

^ Образец выполнения 4 (к упр. V)

The population and physical wealth of a society must stay at constant levels.




Уровень населения и мате-риальное благосостояние об-щества должны оставаться неизменными.

stay — составная часть глагольного сказуемого


New technologies require a great deal of capital investment to get them going.




Новые технологии требуют больших капиталовложений, которые дадут им возможность дальнейшего применения.

to get — функция определения

Вариант 1

  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец 1).

  1. The harmful effects of industrial growth will be controlled by technology.

  2. Scientists are concerned about some of the practical uses to which their theories may be put.

  3. The experiment has been spoken of for quite a long time.

  4. The poisonous mercury compounds were being discharged into the river by a nearby factory.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения слов it, that, one (см. образец 2).

  1. It is the shortage of resources that may affect the quality of our environment and quality of life.

  2. It is evident that the need for water in manufacturing processes tends to increase.

  3. The canals that provide year-round irrigation are never dry.

  4. Continued economic growth and that of population may raise pollution levels.

  5. Find out more about one of the technologies discussed at the conference.

  6. One must conserve natural resources for use by future generations.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения глаголов to be, to have, to do (см. образец 3).

  1. Your local environment is part of a world environmental system.

  2. Sunlight is needed for photosynthesis, the food-making process in green plants.

  3. Why do city dwellers continue to permit factories to dump industrial wastes into rivers?

  4. We know the problem better than you do.

  5. Perhaps you have wondered why so many people take the environment for granted.

  6. We will have to consider the consequences of human activities upon the quality of our environment.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

  1. A number of laws the government has passed help to reduce air pollution.

  2. We know water is a colourless, ordorless, tasteless liquid that is transparant.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите функцию инфинитива (см. образец 4).

  1. New technologies will be needed to supply resources and to fight pollution.

  2. Ecology is what everybody on the planet must start thinking about.

  3. Another important factor to have been referred to was that of our social responsibility.

  4. To protect environment is a task requiring the joint efforts of the entire world population, of government agencies, and public organizations the world over.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, правильно разместив предложения на русском и английском языке.



^ The Impact of Technology

From the food you buy in the supermarket to the light and heat in your home, most of the things you depend upon for a comfortable life owe their existence to modern technology.

But technological advances seldom, if ever, create benefits without also causing some ill effects. For example, the technology used to put humans on the Moon has been incorporated into a new generation of missiles and tools of war. The pesticides that have increased food crops have also polluted bodies of water.

Modern transportation, which has tied city to town, and country to country, has also bred unwanted side effects. It has been accompanied by air pollution, destruction of rural environments, traffic jams, noise, and much greater dependency on nonrenewable reasons. Assembly line techniques have made factory production more efficient and consumer goods more plentiful. But these techniques have also brought about worker boredom and environmental pollution as the factory system became common.

So, in deciding whether new technologies will solve our present problems, we have to wonder constantly what future problems these technologies will themselves create. Each new technology has its cost as well as the benefit. The cost may be monetary, environmental, or social — or all three. We must find the ways to avoid risks inherent in each new technology. For every technological advance, people change their natural environment in some way. There are some risks in such changes. It is not always possible to forcast the risks. If so, how can the risks be kept to a minimum?


  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту:

  1. What do we owe to for a comfortable life?

  2. What effects has modern technology created?

  3. What may the cost of new technologies be?



Вариант 2

  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец 1).

  1. Today science is believed by many people to overcome most if not all human problems.

  2. Unfortunately, the environment has sometimes been defined incorrectly as «everything except you».

  3. Each year new mineral products are being developed and introduced round the world.

  4. Pollution, population, food consumption and industrial production have all been growing exponentially for centuries.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения слов it, that, one (см. образец 2).

  1. Long after the discovery of electricity man found that he could use the great power of water to produce it.

  2. It is the science of ecology that investigates how living things and their environment are interdependent.

  3. The rates of changes that affected human life in the past were very slow compared with those about to take place.

  4. New technologies that people argue about cannot reduce the environmental hazards of continued industrial growth.

  5. The problem of having enough resources is a complex one.

  6. Nearly three-fourths of the earth’s surface is one big ocean in which the continents are the large islands.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения глаголов to be, to have, to do (см. образец 3).

  1. Water is one of the few materials which expands when it freezes.

  2. The construction companies were to receive related construction contracts.

  3. Many rivers throughout the world have become polluted from the dumping of garbage and other city wastes.

  4. If water from the polluted rivers is to be used for drinking, the water must have extensive treatment to make it safe.

  5. Scientists do pass numerous laws forbidding the misuse or overrunning of private property.

  6. Do the conservationists pay enough attention to the town and city environments?




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

  1. Poisonous fumes from automobiles, factories, homes we let to pour into the air pollute it.

  2. Many decisions every family makes affect the environment.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите функцию инфинитива (см. образец 4).

  1. To understand the changes now taking place in the world environmental system, it is helpful to apply some concepts.

  2. Is there a limit in the amount of noise to which human beings can adapt?

  3. For enough electric power to be available in the future other factories would have to grow greatly.

  4. To live in harmony with nature is to observe its laws.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, правильно разместив предложения на русском и английском языке.



^ Is the Storehouse Emptying?

The importance of minerals in the development of civilization can be seen from such expressions as «the Stone Age», «the Bronze Age», «the Iron Age», and the «Nuclear Age». We should be aware that bronze has not taken the place of stone nor has the atom taken the place of iron. On the contrary, today we are using not only stone, bronze, and iron, but also uranium and more than a hundred other mineral products. Each year, as industry expands, new mineral products are being developed and introduced round the world.

All these minerals — as well as the fossil fuels — are nonrenewable natural resources. That is, they appear as deposits in the earth in fixed amounts.

The deposits have to be discovered and mined before they can be used. And once used up, a deposite is gone forever from the earth — at least, for all practical purposes, because the rate of use of these deposits is so much faster than their rate of formation. These deposits have been formed by natural processes that have taken over millions of years. You can plant a tree, and therefore wood is a renewable resource. But you cannot plant a coal deposit.

Obviously, the faster we use nonrenewable resources, the more rapidly the total supply diminishes. We must ask, therefore: Will we continue to have enough of these resources for use in our industries? Or will the rising demand for these resources outstrip the supply in the coming decades?

  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту:

  1. What mineral products do we use today?

  2. Why are the minerals called the nonrenewable natural resources?

  3. How have the deposits been formed?

Вариант 3

  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец 1).

  1. It was stated at the conference that our lives had been improved by the use of science for practical purposes.

  2. A lot of chemicals developed by our industry are being added to our waterways each year.

  3. The life span of people in even the poorest countries has been lengthened owing to medical technology.

  4. What attempts are now being made to mine minerals found on the sea bottom?




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения слов it, that, one (см. образец 2).

  1. The Earth is our home. We must take care of it.

  2. It is the quality and quantity of water that must be conserved throughout the world.

  3. The greenhouse effect is noticeable in the warmer temperatures that we have experienced over the last two decades.

  4. Manufactured products can affect the environment in ways that are not foreseen.

  5. Small cars are generally more fuel-efficient than larger ones.

  6. The earth has physical limits which one is usually not aware of.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения глаголов to be, to have, to do (см. образец 3).

  1. Environmentalists may be in opposition to commercial interests of big corporations.

  2. The climate on earth is unique among all the planets in our solar system in that it allows water to exist in all three states: solid, liquid and gas.

  3. The land surface of the ocean has extremely high mountains and deep valleys.

  4. The historical development of urbanization and industrialization has produced geographical regions where the natural balance is disturbed.

  5. When people do not take in enough calories they usually suffer from a lack of protein.

  6. Many scientists warn that the chemicals in spray cans do add to the destroying of the Earth’s ozone layer.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

  1. The extent of harm the major human activities threaten the quality and quantity of the world’s water supply must be carefully studied.

  2. Some people point out there are environmental problems technology cannot solve.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите функцию инфинитива (см. образец 4).

  1. Scientists have developed a huge variety of new materials to be used in industry.

  2. People eat food daily to get the calories that provide energy for survival and work.

  3. Human decisions can affect the quality of the environment.

  4. To dump sewage and other wastes onto land and into water means to harm the environment.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, правильно разместив предложения на русском и английском языке.

^ The Role of Technology

The advance of technology makes it very difficult to calculate the possible shortage in the world’s supply of minerals and fossil fuels. For scientists have now discovered the «alphabet» of materials. We know that all materials are made of certain fundamental particles — electrons, protons, and neutrons. It is different arrangements and numbers of these particles that give materials their different characteristics.

With this knowledge, we have been able to develop a huge variety of new materials. Take plastics, for instance. It has been estimated that properly developed plastics have been replacing a wide range of metals. One unit of plastic (by weight) can now replace nearly nine units of steel, seven of copper, six of zinc, and three of aluminium. In some of the latest aircrafts, for instance, hundreds of pounds have been saved by doubling the amount of plastics on the exterior skin of the plane. The percentage of plastics in automobiles is also rising steadily. Plastics are even helping to form the roads the automobiles travel on.

A humble substance like graphite has been made into industrial diamonds. The structures of graphite, an opaque, grey-black substance, and a diamond, which is transparent and the hardest substance known are different. By sufficiently pushing or prodding and rearranging the fundamental particles that make up lead, can we come up with bright gold? If the alchemists are right and everything can ultimately be made with anything, then ‘planet eating’ may not be so dangerous. There is a great deal of it to eat!


  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту:

  1. Who has discovered the ‘alphabet’ of materials?

  2. What do different characteristics of materials depend upon?

  3. What can be replaced by properly developed plastics?

Вариант 4

  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец 1).

  1. We know many steps are being taken to keep our air, water and public land safe.

  2. Unlimited fishing and hunting have been causing many species of fish and water mammals to die out.

  3. Some scientists warn that a different approach to controlling automobile pollution is needed.

  4. The problem of air pollution is a big one and it will be solved step by step.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения слов it, that, one (см. образец 2).

  1. It is on the basis of an ethical attitude that we can solve the problems which threaten the world today.

  2. It takes enourmous amounts of oil to operate modern farm machinery, run irrigation pumps and produce fertilizers.

  3. The plan of an English house differs from that of the houses where we live.

  4. Pollution includes any by-products of human activities that harm the environment.

  5. One must know that pollution can take many forms.

  6. The program to plant trees along the down-town boulevards is one aspect of the mayor’s plan for the greening of the city.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения глаголов to be, to have, to do (см. образец 3).

  1. The major environmental threat to life on Earth is the weakening of the ozone layer.

  2. The proposed nuclear power station was to lie within a small town on the shore of the lake.

  3. An Englishman likes to have a garden around his home separating one house from another.

  4. Science and technology have changed life unrecognizably.

  5. A lot of people in Ukraine do criticize increasing air pollution.

  6. Don’t you know that the faster we use nonrenewable resources the more rapidly the total supply diminishes?




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

  1. The people of ancient times had many problems we have today and they sometimes solved them in much the same way.

  2. Researchers say new technologies can be developed that will reduce the pollution from production processes.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите функцию инфинитива (см. образец 4).

  1. There are a lot of places of interest to see.

  2. Twenty times more energy is required to extract aluminium from its ore than to extract iron from its ore.

  3. To travel in cars is more comfortable.

  4. Any study of the environment must investigate the role of human beings in causing environmental changes.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, правильно разместив предложения на русском и английском языке.

^ An Environment Fit for People

In industrialized countries more people are living more comfortably, more securely, and for a longer time than ever before in history. We have made spectacular gains in our ways of producing both the needs and the luxuries of life. But these advances are being made at the cost of increasing deterioration of our environment, pollution of its air and water, loss of living space and crowding, and threats to nature in the wild.

A concern for keeping the world fit place for people is the basis for the movement known as conservation.

Early conservationists paid little attention to the town and city environments where people were concentrated. They were concerned chiefly with threats to the natural environment — to wildlife and fisheries, forests and rangelands, soils and river basins, the minerals and fuels needed for human use. These early conservationists recognized that the natural world upon which people depend was being used for economic growth with no thought for tomorrow. The world seemed huge, with its resources untapped, and with room for many kinds of people and ways of life.

But today the world seems small. It has shrunk because of the transportation networks over which people and goods move in great speed and volume. It has shrunk because of the rapid growth of its population. Pollution spreads everywhere. In cities especially, the quality of human life threatens to decline. The old problems remain, and the new ones are becoming more acute. The conservation movement has therefore shifted its focus.

The goal of conservation is now rational use of the environment to achieve the highest quality of life for all people.


  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту:

  1. What is the cost of the advances of our present life?

  2. What is the goal for the movement known as conservation?

  3. What does the quality of people’s life depend upon?

Вариант 5

  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец 1).

  1. When conventional fuels — such as wood, coal, oil or gas — are burned, their energy is used up and cannot be renewed.

  2. So far, only limited mining of ocean minerals has been undertaken.

  3. Harmful chemicals are now being released into the atmosphere by mankind.

  4. One rarely wonders whether the raw materials to produce our goods will ever be used up.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения слов it, that, one (см. образец 2).

  1. It is iron and aluminium that are used in most types of consumer goods.

  2. It is proved that changes taking place in our immediate environment affect our lives.

  3. Deforestation leads to climatic and environmental changes that sometimes cause rich agricultural regions to become desert wastelands.

  4. Scientists are realizing more and more clearly the indisputable, fact that their social responsibility should grow.

  5. One of the central causes of the ecological crisis is a consumer’s attitude to nature.

  6. One should remember that the rate of use of the deposits is so much faster than their rate of formation.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите значения глаголов to be, to have, to do (см. образец 3).

  1. The present civilization is on the eve of the third millenium of our era.

  2. The life-giving sun is becoming dangerous due to a weakend ozone layer.

  3. Science and technology have changed life unrecognizably.

  4. All large cities have the problems of transport.

  5. When do you think life is more comfortable, pleasant and exciting — in A.D. 1000 or A.D. 2100? (A. D. — Anno Domini — (лат.) нашей эры).

  6. We do not tend to think of our environment as something separate from ourselves.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

  1. Bodies of water people use for drinking can be polluted by radioactive and other industrial wastes.

  2. The methods the scientists have proposed for solving our environmental problems are very effective.




  1. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык. Укажите функцию инфинитива (см. образец 4).

  1. What could encourage people to develop new inventions or new methods?

  2. To propose many methods was necessary.

  3. The earth is a closed physical system, limited in its capacity to support human population.

  4. The task of the scientists is to develop a huge variety of new materials.




  1. Прочитайте текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите его, правильно разместив предложения на русском и английском языке.

^ The Chemical Mix

It is not just the wastes from homes that reach bodies of water. Many industries dump their manufacturing wastes directly into bodies of water — or into the sewage systems of cities, which eventually reach bodies of water. As capital investment and industrial production grow, so does the pollution of water by industrial wastes.

Wastes from industry include a huge variety of chemicals. Many, such as arsenic and lead, are known poisons. The danger of other wastes have become known only after disasters. For example, the death of over 100 people in one of the communities brought attention to the danger of certain compounds containing methyl mercury. Mercury in itself is comparatively nonpoisonous because poorly absorbed — unless inhaled as a gas. However, certain methyl mercury compounds used as fungicides are readily absorbed and very poisonous. These poisonous mercury compounds were being discharged into the river by a nearby factory. The compounds became concentrated in fish used for food.

Also, completely new compounds, not found in nature — such as vinyl chloride and other substances used in making plastics — are entering our waters daily. More than 500 chemicals developed by industry are being added to our water ways each year. Without a thorough investigation of each one we can only guess at the short- or long-range effects of these substances upon the environment and upon human health.


  1. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы к тексту:

  1. Which factors does the growth of water pollution by industrial wastes depend on?

  2. Which chemicals do wastes include?

  3. How many chemicals are being added to our waterways each year?

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